US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

Landscape Position Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Lake Characteristics 1998 - 2000

Abstract
Parameters characterizing the chemical limnology and spatial attributes of 47 lakes were surveyed as part of the Landscape Position Project. Lake characteristics compiled here include lake area and perimeter, catchment area, mean and maximum depth, shoreline development factor, elevation and percent wetlands within catchment area. Lake order was determined using a modification of the method of Riera et al. (2000). Lake order is a numerical surrogate for groundwater influx and hydrological position along a drainage network, with the highest number indicating the lake lowest in a watershed. Lake order for each lake was determined by field visit with presence/absence of streams confirmed, not base solely on topographic maps. Riera, Joan L., John J. Magnuson, Tim K. Kratz, and Katherine E. Webster. 2000. A geomorphic template for the analysis of lake districts applied to Northern Highland Lake District, Wisconsin, U.S.A. Freshwater Biology 43:301-18. Number of sites: 49
Dataset ID
93
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
Project: Identifies what part of the project a lake was sampled for.A core landscape position project lake = LPPA core LTER lakes sampled for biology as part of the landscape positon project = LTEROne of the lakes sampled as part of Ben Greenfield MS thesis (2000) = BenA landscape position project lake sampled only for fish = Fish.Lake_order: Lake order is a numerical surrogate for groundwater influx and hydrological position along a drainage network, with the highest number indicating the lake lowest in a watershed. We define lake order as follows: -3 indicates isolated seepage lakes, -2 indicates seepage lakes connected by intermittent streams, -1 indicates seepage lakes connected by a wetland, 0 indicates headwater drainage lakes, and 1 through 4 indicate drainage lakes, with the number indicating the order of the stream that exits the lake (Riera et al. 2000).Area: lake area in acres. Using Arcview coverages, identified in Ben Greenfield MS thesis (2000) as described belowDirect_catchment: area of surrounding catchment feeding directly into lake (square meters). For drainage lakes, delineated starting from the outlet of the immediate upstream lake.Total_catchment: area of surrounding catchment feeding into lake and all lakes upstream of given lake.Max_depth (ft): Using agency published records, listed in Ben Greenfield MS thesis (2000) as described belowPerimeter (m): Lake perimeter. Using Arcview coverages, identified in Ben Greenfield MS thesis (2000)Shoreline_devel: Shoreline development factor, defined in Cole s Limnology textWetlands_250m: Percent wetlands within catchment within buffer strip 250 meters distance from lake. Methods in Ben Greenfield MS thesis (2000Wetlands_500m: Percent wetlands within catchment within buffer strip 500 meters distance from lake. Methods in Ben Greenfield MS thesis (2000Mean_depth (ft): Mean depth, using WDNR data, when available.
Short Name
LPPSPAT1
Version Number
8

Landscape Position Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Fish 1998 - 1999

Abstract
As part of the Landscape Position Project, we conducted fish sampling on each of 26 lakes using a variety of gear types. Sampling was conducted beginning in the 3rd week in June and running through the endof July in 1998. In 1999, sampling was conducted from early July through August. We used vertical gillnets of various mesh sizes (19, 32, 51, 64, 89-mm stretch mesh) to sample pelagic fishes. The nets were fished in the deep basin of each lake for one diel cycle. We used fyke nets to sample fishes in the shallow near shore areas. Three nets were set, one each at differing locations defined by substrate type (muck, sand and cobble) for one diel cycle. Three crayfish traps were set along side each of the fyke nets. We performed electrofishing over two, 30 minute transects along the near shore area between 0.3 and 1.5-m in depth. Our goal was to capture, identify and measure as many game and non-game fish species as possible Sampling Frequency: one survey on each lake in late June through August of 1998 or 1999 Number of sites: 26
Core Areas
Dataset ID
100
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
Fish SamplingFish sampling was conducted on each lake at least one month after thermal stratification had taken place, beginning on the 3rd week in June and running through the 3rd week in July. This was done to minimize the effects of winter stress and spawning on fish weight given their length. Several gears were employed to estimate fish diversity in each lake, each being effective at catching a different set of fishes.Vertical gillnets were employed to sample pelagic fishes. A spectrum of mesh sizes (19, 32, 51, 64, 89-mm stretch mesh) were used, with each mesh size effectively catching a different size range of fish. The nets were fished in the deep basin of each lake for one diel cycle.Fyke nets were employed to sample fishes in the shallow near shore areas. Mini fyke nets with a mouth opening 0.75-m high by 1.25-m wide constructed with 4-mm delta mesh, with a 1-m by 5-m single lead were set so as the lead ran perpendicular from shore and that the mouth sat in approximately 1-m of water. There were 3 nets set at differing locations defined by substrate type (muck, sand and cobble) for one diel cycle. Three crayfish traps were set along side each of the fyke nets so as to sample the same habitat type sampled by each fyke net.Electrofishing occurred in the near shore area between 0.3 and 1.5-m in depth. Two 30 minute transects were performed such that a variety of substrate types were sampled. The dipnets used to net fish during electrofishing consisted of 4-mm delta mesh and were capable of retaining small fishes (down to 20-mm). Our goal was to capture and identify as many game and non-game fish species as possible.Fish ProcessingFish caught in each gear type were processed by measuring mass and total length of all fish of each species; however, a subset of each species was measured when the catch rate was high. Two fish in each 5-mm size class for each species were weighed and length measurements were taken so as to collect weight measurements for a wide size range of each species. If the catch of a given species in a given size class (small, medium or large) within a particular set or electro-shocking run exceeded 30 fish, 30 were measured for each species. Those not measured for length in each size class were counted and recorded so as to associate them with those that were measured to allow length frequency distributions to be generated while expediting our processing and avoiding redundant weight and length measuring. Each fish was identified to genus and species using the taxonomic key in Becker (1983). Any game fish killed were turned over to the appropriate Department of Natural Resource Game Warden.
Short Name
LPPFISH1
Version Number
9

Landscape Position Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Fish Mercury Level 1998 - 1999

Abstract
As part of the Landscape Position Project, yellow perch were collected for mercury and isotope analysis by a combination of angling, beach seining, vertical gill net, fyke net and electrofishing in the summers of 1998 and 1999. A total of 183 yellow perch from 43 study lakes with approximate length of 150 mm were analyzed. Sampling Frequency: one survey on each lake in late June through August of 1998 or 1999 Number of sites: 43
Dataset ID
99
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
A total of 183 yellow perch from 43 study lakes with approximate length of 150 mm were analyzed
Short Name
LPPHGLVL
Version Number
8

Landscape Position Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Fish Growth and Mercury Contaminant Data 1998 - 1999

Abstract
As part of the Landscape Position Project, yellow perch were collected for mercury and isotope analysis by a combination of angling, beach seining, vertical gill net, fyke net and electrofishing in the summers of 1998 and 1999. A total of 86 yellow perch from 25 lakes were analyzed. Scales were used to determine age and length at ages 1 to 3 years. The nitrogen stable isotope signature indicates the relative food-web position of the fish relative to cladocerans collected from the same lake. The N_SIGNATURE value divided by 3.2 gives trophic position relative to cladoceran Sampling Frequency: one survey on each lake in late June through late July of 1998 or 1999 Number of sites: 25
Dataset ID
98
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
As part of the Landscape Position Project, yellow perch were collected for mercury and isotope analysis by a combination of angling, beach seining, vertical gill net, fyke net and electrofishing in the summers of 1998 and 1999. A total of 86 yellow perch from 25 lakes were analyzed. Scales were used to determine age and length at ages 1 to 3 years. The nitrogen stable isotope signature indicates the relative food-web position of the fish relative to cladocerans collected from the same lake. The N_SIGNATURE value divided by 3.2 gives trophic position relative to cladoceran Sampling Frequency: one survey on each lake in late June through late July of 1998 or 1999 Number of sites: 25
Short Name
LPPCOM1
Version Number
8

Landscape Position Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Vertical Lake Profiles 1998 - 1999

Abstract
Parameters characterizing the chemical limnology and spatial attributes of 45 lakes were surveyed as part of the Landscape Position Project. Parameters are measured at or close to the deepest part of the lake. A vertical profile of temperature, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity are collected at 1 meter increments Sampling Frequency: generally monthly for one summer; for some lakes, one or two samples in one summer Number of sites: 45
Dataset ID
95
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
We sample at the deepest part of the lake, taking a temperature and oxygen profile at meter intervals from the surface to within 1 meter of the bottom using a YSI Pro-ODO temp/DO meter.
Short Name
LPPPROF1
Version Number
8

Landscape Position Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Chlorophyll 1998 - 2000

Abstract
Parameters characterizing the chemical limnology and spatial attributes of 49 lakes were surveyed as part of the Landscape Position Project. Most parameters are measured at or close to the deepest part of the lake. Chlorophyll is measured by collecting separate integrated samples from the epilimnion, metalimnion, and hypolimnion Sampling Frequency: generally monthly for one summer; for some lakes, one or two samples in one summer Number of sites: 51
Core Areas
Dataset ID
92
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
Chlorophyll is measured by collecting separate integrated samples from the epilimnion, metalimnion, and hypolimnion
Short Name
LPPCHL1
Version Number
8

Landscape Position Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Aquatic Macrophytesn 1998 - 1999

Abstract
Submersed and floating macrophytes were surveyed along transects running perpendicular to shore at two sites representative of muck (organic) and sand substrate macrophyte communities. Data were collected by Karen A. Wilson as part of her PhD work in Northern Wisconsin, (Vilas and Onieda Counties) during July and August of 1998 and 1999. Details of field collections can be found in Wilson, K.A. 2002. Impacts of the invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) in northern Wisconsin lakes. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Wisconsin, Madison. Number of sites: 30 lakes; 2 sites per lake
Core Areas
Creator
Dataset ID
109
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
Details of field collections can be found in Wilson, K.A. 2002. Impacts of the invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) in northern Wisconsin lakes. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Short Name
LPPMACR
Version Number
21

Landscape Position Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Benthic Invertebrate Abundance 1998 - 1999

Abstract
Benthic invertebrate assemblages of 32 lakes were surveyed as part of the Landscape Position Project. We used modified Hester-Dendy colonization substrates to sample benthic invertebrate communities. Each sampling device consisted of a 3"x3" top plate, alternating layers of course and fine mesh, a ''choreboy'' commercial scrubbing puff, alternating layers of coarse (6.35 mm) and fine (3.18 mm) black plastic mesh, and a 3"x3" bottom plate. Two Hester-Dendy samplers were set at a depth of one meter on each of three substrate types (cobble, sand and silt) within each lake for four weeks in late June through late July in either 1998 or 1999. Within each lake, areas of different substrate types were identified using WI-DNR depth contour lake maps, and substrate type was verified by direct observation. Different substrates were sampled to account for invertebrate associations with specific substrate characteristics. Lake order was determined using a modification of the method of Riera et al. (2000). Lake order is a numerical surrogate for groundwater influx and hydrological position along a drainage network, with the highest number indicating the lake lowest in a watershed. Riera, Joan L., John J. Magnuson, Tim K. Kratz, and Katherine E. Webster. 2000. A geomorphic template for the analysis of lake districts applied to Northern Highland Lake District, Wisconsin, U.S.A. Freshwater Biology 43:301-18. Sampling Frequency: one survey on each lake in late June through late July of 1998 or 1999 Number of sites: 32
Core Areas
Dataset ID
96
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
We used modified Hester-Dendy colonization substrates to sample benthic invertebrate communities. Each sampling device consisted of a 3"x3" top plate, alternating layers of course and fine mesh, a choreboy commercial scrubbing puff, alternating layers of coarse (6.35 mm) and fine (3.18 mm) black plastic mesh, and a 3"x3" bottom plate. Two Hester-Dendy samplers were set at a depth of one meter on each of three substrate types (cobble, sand and silt) within each lake for four weeks in late June through late July in either 1998 or 1999. Within each lake, areas of different substrate types were identified using WI-DNR depth contour lake maps, and substrate type was verified by direct observation. Different substrates were sampled to account for invertebrate associations with specific substrate characteristics. Lake order was determined using a modification of the method of Riera et al. (2000). Lake order is a numerical surrogate for groundwater influx and hydrological position along a drainage network, with the highest number indicating the lake lowest in a watershed. Riera, Joan L., John J. Magnuson, Tim K. Kratz, and Katherine E. Webster. 2000. A geomorphic template for the analysis of lake districts applied to Northern Highland Lake District, Wisconsin, U.S.A. Freshwater Biology 43:301-18. Sampling Frequency: one survey on each lake in late June through late July of 1998 or 1999 Number of sites: 32
Short Name
LPPINVA1
Version Number
6

Landscape Position Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Chemical Limnology 1998 - 2000

Abstract
Parameters characterizing the chemical limnology and spatial attributes of 51 lakes were surveyed as part of the Landscape Position Project. Parameters are measured at or close to the deepest part of the lake. The following parameters are measured one meter from the surface and two meters from the bottom of the lake: pH, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total silica. The following parameters are measured one meter from the surface: dissolved organic carbon, total organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon, total inorganic carbon, spectrophotometric absorbance (color scan), major anions and cations, alkalinity. Sampling Frequency: once for conservative parameters (major ions, carbon, color, alkalinity); monthly for one summer for other parameters (chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorus, pH, silica, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity) Number of sites: 51Allequash Lake, Anderson Lake, Arrowhead Lake, Beaver Lake, Big Lake, Big Crooked Lake, Big Gibson Lake, Big Muskellunge Lake, Boulder Lake, Brandy Lake, Crampton Lake, Crystal Lake, Diamond Lake, Flora Lake, Heart Lake, Ike Walton Lake, Island Lake, Johnson Lake, Katherine Lake, Kathleen Lake, Katinka Lake, Lehto Lake, Little Crooked Lake, Little Muskie, Little Spider Lake, Little Sugarbush Lake, Little Trout Lake, Lower Kaubeshine Lake, Lynx Lake, McCullough Lake, Mid Lake, Minocqua Lake, Muskesin Lake, Nixon Lake, Partridge Lake, Randall Lake, Round Lake, Sanford Lake, Sparkling Lake, Statenaker Lake, Stearns Lake, Tomahawk Lake, Trout Lake, Upper Kaubeshine Lake, Verna Lake, Ward Lake, White Birch Lake, White Sand Lake, Wild Rice Lake, Wildcat Lake, Wolf Lake, Vilas County, WI, Iron County, WI, Oneida County, WI, Gogebic County, MI, USA
Dataset ID
91
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
Chloride, SulfateSamples for chloride and sulfate are collected together with a peristaltic pump and tubing and in-line filtered (through a 0.40 micron polycarbonate filter) into new, 20 ml HDPE plastic containers with conical caps. The samples are stored refrigerated at 4 degrees Celsius until analysis, which should occur within 6 months. The samples are analyzed for chloride (and sulfate) simultaneously by Ion Chromatography, using a hydroxide eluent.The detection limit for chloride is approximately 0.01 ppm and the analytical range for the method extends to 100 ppm.The detection limit for sulfate is approximately 0.01 ppm and the analytical range for the method extends to 60 ppm.Method Log: Prior to January 1998 samples, chloride was determined on a Dionex DX10 Ion Chromatograph, using a chemical fiber suppressor. From 1998 to 2011, chloride was determined by a Dionex model DX500, using an electro-chemical suppressor. From January 2011 until present, chloride is determined by a Dionex model ICS 2100 using an electro-chemical suppressor.Calcium, silicon, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, and manganeseSamples for calcium analysis (as well as dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus, silicon, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese) are collected together with a peristaltic pump and tubing and in-line filtered (through a 40 micron polycarbonate filter) into 120 ml LDPE bottles and acidified to a 1percent HCl matrix by adding 1 ml of ultra pure concentrated HCl to 100 mls of sample. For every sample acidification event, three acid blanks are created by adding the same acid used on the samples to 100 mls of ultra pure water supplied from the lab. Once acidified, the samples are stable at room temperature until analysis, which should occur within one year. Until acidification, the samples should be refrigerated at 4 degrees Celsius.Calcium, as well as magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese are analyzed simultaneously on an optical inductively-coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES). The acidified samples are directly aspirated into the instrument without a digestion. Calcium is analyzed at 317.933 nm and at 315.887 nm and viewed axially for low-level analysis and radially for high level analysis.The detection limit for calcium is 0.06 ppm with an analytical range of the method extends to 50 ppm.The detection limit for iron is 0.02 ppm with an analytical range of the method extends to 20 ppm.The detection limit for magnesium is 0.03 ppm with an analytical range of the method extends to 50 ppm.The detection limit for manganese is 0.01 ppm with an analytical range of the method extends to 2 ppm.The detection limit for potassium is 0.06 ppm with an analytical range of the method extends to 10 ppm.The detection limit for sodium is 0.06 ppm with an analytical range of the method extends to 50 ppm.Method Log: Prior to January 2002, Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese were determined on a Perkin-Elmer model 503 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Lanthanum at a 0.8percent concentration was added as a matrix modifier to suppress chemical interferences. From January 2002 to present, samples are analyzed for calcium on a Perkin-Elmer model 4300 DV ICP.Dissolved reactive silica is determined by the Heteropoly Blue Method and the absorption is measured at 820 nm.The detection limit for silicon is 6 ppb and the analytical range is 15000 ppb.Method Log These determinations were performed manually using a Bausch and Lomb Spectrophotometer from the beginning of the project until April 1984. From 1984 through 2005, dissolved reactive silicon was determined on a Technicon Auto Analyzer II. From January 2006 to present, samples are run on an Astoria-Pacific Astoria II Autoanalyzer.
Short Name
LPPCHEM1
Version Number
9
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