US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

Little Rock Lake Experiment at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Zooplankton count 1983 - 2000

Abstract
The Little Rock Acidification Experiment was a joint project involving the USEPA (Duluth Lab), University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, University of Wisconsin-Superior, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Little Rock Lake is a bi-lobed lake in Vilas County, Wisconsin, USA. In 1983 the lake was divided in half by an impermeable curtain and from 1984-1989 the northern basin of the lake was acidified with sulfuric acid in three two-year stages. The target pHs for 1984-5, 1986-7, and 1988-9 were 5.7, 5.2, and 4.7, respectively. Starting in 1990 the lake was allowed to recover naturally with the curtain still in place. Data were collected through 2000. The main objective was to understand the population, community, and ecosystem responses to whole-lake acidification. Funding for this project was provided by the USEPA and NSF. Zooplankton samples are collected from the treatment and reference basins of Little Rock Lake at at two to nine depths using a 30L Schindler Patalas trap (53um mesh). Zooplankton samples are preserved in buffered formalin and archived. Data are summed over sex and stage and integrated volumetrically over the water column to provide a lake-wide estimate of organisms per liter for each species. Sampling Frequency: varies - Number of sites: 2
Core Areas
Dataset ID
251
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
We collect zooplankton samples at the deepest part of the lake using two different gear types. We take one vertical tow with a Wisconsin Net (80um mesh), and a series of Schindler Patalas (53um mesh) samples spanning the water column. All samples are preserved in cold 95percent EtOH. After collection we combine subsamples of the individual Schindler Patalas trap samples to create one hypsometrically pooled sample for each lakeordate. The individual depth samples are discarded after pooling except from one August sampling date per year. The Hypsometrically Pooled sample and the Wisconsin Net sample are archived in the UW Zoology museum. We count zooplankton in one or two subsamples, each representing 1.8L of lake water, of the hypsometrically pooled samples to calculate zooplankton abundance. We count one sample date per month from the open water season, and the February ice cover sample. We identify individuals to genus or species, take length measurements, and count eggs and embryos. Protocol log: 1981-May1984 -- a 0.5m high, 31L Schindler Patalas trap with 80um mesh net was used. Two Wisconsin Net tows were collected. Preservative was 12percent buffered formalin. June1984 -- changed to 53um mesh net on Schindler trap. July1986 -- began using the 2m high, 45L Schindler Patalas trap. Changed WI Net collection to take only one tow. 2001 -- changed zooplankton preservative from 12percent buffered formalin to 95percent EtOH. The number of sample dates per year counted varies with lake and year, from 5 datesoryear to 17 datesoryear. 1981-1983 -- pooled samples are of several types: Total Pooled (TP) were created using equal volume subsamples of the Schindler samples. Epi, Meta, Hypo pooled used equal volume subsamples from the Schindler samples collected from each of the thermal strata. Strata Pooled used equal volume subsamples from the Epi, Meta, Hypo pooled samples to create an entire lake sample. Hypsometrically Pooled (HP) is our standard, which uses subsample volumes weighted to represent the hypsometry of the lake.
Short Name
LRZOOP1
Version Number
3

Cascade Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Phytoplankton 1984 - 1995

Abstract
Data on epilimnetic phytoplankton from 1984-95, determined by light microscopy from pooled Van Dorn samples at 100percent, 50percent, and 25percent of surface irradiance. There have been 4 counters during this period, with the same counter from 1991-95. Standardization among counters is difficult, so I recommend sticking to the 1991-95 data if possible. Cottingham (1996) describes the counting protocols in detail. Sampling Frequency: varies Number of sites: 5
Core Areas
Dataset ID
80
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
See for detail: Cottingham, K.L., and S.E. Knight. 1995. Effects of grazer size on the response of mesotrophic lakes to experimental enrichment. Water Science and Technology 32(4): 157-163.
Short Name
CPHYT1
Version Number
3

Biocomplexity at North Temperate Lakes LTER; Coordinated Field Studies: Zooplankton Presence/Absence 2001 - 2004

Abstract
Zooplankton samples were taken at approximately the deepest part of 58 lakes included in the "cross-lake comparison" segment of the Biocomplexity Project. The samples were from years 2001 through 2004. The study lakes are located in Vilas County, Wisconsin and were chosen to represent a range of positions on gradients of both human development and landscape position. Zooplankton samples were analyzed for planktonic crustacean and insect species. Number of sites: 58 Sampling Frequency: each site sampled once
Core Areas
Dataset ID
208
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
Wisconsin Net samplesLower the Wisconsin net to the bottom sample depth ( top of the net should be one meter above the bottom). Pull it up slowly at a rate of about 3 seconds per meter. A slow haul prevents the net from pushing water and plankton away from the mouth of the net. To drain the cup swirl it until the water level is below the lower mesh window, then pour contents into the sample jar. Avoid inverting the cup while swirling, as you will lose the sample into the net. Rinse the inside of the cup with 95percent ETOH several times adding the rinse to the sample jar. Wait until the chemistry crew member is finished taking Temp or D.O. profile before taking the Wisconsin net sample, so as not to stir up the sediments. Take replicate sample.
Short Name
BIOZOOP1
Version Number
7

North Temperate Lakes LTER: Zooplankton - Madison Lakes Area 1997 - current

Abstract
Zooplankton samples for the 4 southern Wisconsin LTER lakes (Mendota, Monona, Wingra, Fish) have been collected for analysis by LTER since 1995 (1996 Wingra, Fish) when the southern Wisconsin lakes were added to the North Temperate Lakes LTER project. Samples are collected as a vertical tow using an 80-micron mesh conical net with a 30-cm diameter opening (net mouth: net length ratio = 1:3) consistent with sampling conducted by the Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources in prior years. Zooplankton tows are taken in the deep hole region of each lake at the same time and location as other limnological sampling; zooplankton samples are preserved in 70% ethanol for later processing. Samples are usually collected with standard tow depths on most dates (e.g., 20 meters for Lake Mendota) but not always, so tow depth is recorded as a variate in the database. Crustacean species are identified and counted for Mendota and Monona and body lengths are recorded for a portion of each species identified (see data protocol for counting procedure); samples for Wingra and Fish lakes are archived but not routinely counted. Numerical densities for Mendota and Monona zooplankton samples are reported in the database as number or organisms per square meter without correcting for net efficiency. [Net efficiency varies from a maximum of about 70% under clear water conditions; net efficiency declines when algal blooms are dense (Lathrop, R.C. 1998. Water clarity responses to phosphorus and Daphnia in Lake Mendota. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison.)] Organism densities in number per cubic meter can be obtained by dividing the reported square-meter density by the tow depth, although adjustments for the oxygenated depth zone during the summer and early fall stratified season is required to obtain realistic zooplankton volumetric densities in the lake's surface waters. Biomass densities can be calculated using literature formulas for converting organism body lengths reported in the database to body masses. Sampling Frequency: bi-weekly during ice-free season from late March or early April through early September, then every 4 weeks through late November; sampling is conducted usually once during the winter (depending on ice conditions). Number of sites: 4 Note: for a period between approximately 2011 and 2015, a calculation error caused density values to be significantly greater than they should have been for the entire dataset. That issue has been corrected.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
90
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
We collect zooplankton samples at the deepest part of the lake using two different gear types. We take one vertical tow with a Wisconsin Net (80um mesh), and a series of Schindler Patalas (53um mesh) samples spanning the water column. All samples are preserved in cold 95percent EtOH.After collection we combine subsamples of the individual Schindler Patalas trap samples to create one hypsometrically pooled sample for each lakeordate. The individual depth samples are discarded after pooling except from one August sampling date per year. The Hypsometrically Pooled sample and the Wisconsin Net sample are archived in the UW Zoology museum.We count zooplankton in one or two subsamples, each representing 1.8L of lake water, of the hypsometrically pooled samples to calculate zooplankton abundance. We count one sample date per month from the open water season, and the February ice cover sample. We identify individuals to genus or species, take length measurements, and count eggs and embryos.Protocol log: 1981-May1984 -- a 0.5m high, 31L Schindler Patalas trap with 80um mesh net was used. Two Wisconsin Net tows were collected. Preservative was 12percent buffered formalin.June1984 -- changed to 53um mesh net on Schindler trap.July1986 -- began using the 2m high, 45L Schindler Patalas trap. Changed WI Net collection to take only one tow.2001 -- changed zooplankton preservative from 12percent buffered formalin to 95percent EtOH.The number of sample dates per year counted varies with lake and year, from 5 datesoryear to 17 datesoryear.1981-1983 -- pooled samples are of several types: Total Pooled (TP) were created using equal volume subsamples of the Schindler samples. Epi, Meta, Hypo pooled used equal volume subsamples from the Schindler samples collected from each of the thermal strata. Strata Pooled used equal volume subsamples from the Epi, Meta, Hypo pooled samples to create an entire lake sample. Hypsometrically Pooled (HP) is our standard, which uses subsample volumes weighted to represent the hypsometry of the lake.
Short Name
NTLPL06
Version Number
31

North Temperate Lakes LTER: Phytoplankton - Madison Lakes Area 1995 - current

Abstract
Phytoplankton samples for the 4 southern Wisconsin LTER lakes (Mendota, Monona, Wingra, Fish) have been collected for analysis by LTER since 1995 (1996 Wingra, Fish) when the southern Wisconsin lakes were added to the North Temperate Lakes LTER project. Samples are collected as a composite whole-water sample and are preserved in gluteraldehyde. Composite sample depths are 0-8 meters for Lake Mendota (to conform to samples collected and analyzed since 1990 for a UW/DNR food web research study), and 0-2 meters for the other three lakes. A tube sampler is used for the 0-8 m Lake Mendota samples; samples for the other lakes are obtained by collecting water at 1-meter intervals using a Kemmerer water sampler and compositing the samples in a bucket. Samples are taken in the deep hole region of each lake at the same time and location as other limnological sampling. Phytoplankton samples are analyzed by PhycoTech, Inc., a private lab specializing in phytoplankton analyses (see data protocol for procedures). Samples for Wingra and Fish lakes are archived but not routinely counted. Permanent slide mounts (3 per sample) are prepared for all analyzed Mendota and Monona samples as well as 6 samples per year for Wingra and Fish; the slide mounts are archived at the University of Wisconsin - Madison Zoology Museum. Phytoplankton are identified to species using an inverted microscope (Utermohl technique) and are reported as natural unit (i.e., colonies, filaments, or single cells) densities per mL, cell densities per mL, and algal biovolume densities per mL. Multiple entries for the same species on the same date may be due to different variants or vegetative states - (e.g., colonial or attached vs. free cell.) Biovolumes for individual cells of each species are determined during the counting procedure by obtaining cell measurements needed to calculate volumes for geometric solids (e.g., cylinders, spheres, truncated cones) corresponding to actual cell shapes. Biovolume concentrations are then computed by mulitplying the average cell biovolume by the cell densities in the water sample. Note that one million cubicMicrometers of biovolume PerMilliliter of water are equal to a biovolume concentration of one cubicMillimeterPerMilliliter. Assuming a cell density equal to water, a cubicMillimeterPerMilliliter of biovolume converts to a biomass concentration of one milligramPerLiter. Sampling Frequency: bi-weekly during ice-free season from late March or early April through early September, then every 4 weeks through late November; sampling is conducted usually once during the winter (depending on ice conditions). Number of sites: 4
Several taxonomic updates have been made to this dataset February 2013, see methods for details.
Dataset ID
88
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
Water samples are taken along routine sampling and then prepared into permanent slides by the company Phyco Tech. Slides are available for all years, however, species may not have been determined for all available slides.
several taxonomic updates were implemented in February 2013, this includes simple name changes to currently accepted names, changes from genus level to species based on long term experience by Phyco Tech, and some slides were revisited to resolve taxonomic uncertainty.
1) Converted all Melosira entries to Aulacoseira. The species names have been changed appropriately. 2) Converted all Oscillatoria entries to Psuedanabaena. The species names have been changed appropriately. 3) Converted all Synedra tenera to Synedra filiformis. 4) Converted all Phacotus entries without a species name to Phacotus lendneri. 5) Converted all Phormidium mucicola to Psuedanabaena 6) Converted Glenodinium entries without a species name to Glenodinium quadridens 7) Assume that all other entries with genera names but not species names cannot be resolved to species. 8) Converted all Chrysococcus entries to Chrysocccus minutus 9) Changed some single-celled Microcystis entries so that they would match the format of the colonial entries (genus + species) 10) Resolved some entries to species that were previously coded incorrectly by genus. 11) Added in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii entries that were recently recounted and changed from Anabaenopsis raciborskii. 12) Converted all entries of genus Erkenia to Erkenia subaequiciliata
Short Name
NTLPL05
Version Number
29

North Temperate Lakes LTER: Phytoplankton - Trout Lake Area 1984 - current

Abstract
Phytoplankton samples from the seven LTER lakes in the Trout Lake area (Allequash, Big Muskellunge, Crystal, Sparkling, and Trout lakes and bog lakes 27-02 [Crystal Bog], and 12-15 [Trout Bog]) are collected six times per year at the deep hole sampling station at the same time our other limnological sampling is conducted. Sampling dates include winter under ice, spring mixis, June, July, August, and fall mixis. Phytoplankton samples are made into permanent slide mounts, 3 slides per sample, and are archived at the University of Wisconsin - Madison Zoology Museum. Slides are available for all years, however species identification and counts have not been done for all available slides. Sampling Frequency: 6 samples per year. Number of sites: 7
Dataset ID
238
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
Phytoplankton samples are collected using a peristaltic pump and tubing, collecting a separate sample from the epilimnion, metalimnion and hypolimnion for most of the lakes. For 27-2 Bog Lake, which is only 2m deep, we collect one 0-2m composite sample. The samples are preserved with Lugol's iodine solution. We create a single hypsometrically pooled composite sample per lake from subsamples of the epi, meta, and hypo samples. The pooled samples are sent to PhycoTech, Inc., a private lab specializing in plankton analysis, to be made into permanent slide mounts. The slides are archived, and no wet samples are saved.
Short Name
NTLPL08
Version Number
19

North Temperate Lakes LTER: Zooplankton - Trout Lake Area 1982 - current

Abstract
Zooplankton samples are collected from the seven primary northern lakes (Allequash, Big Muskellunge, Crystal, Sparkling, and Trout lakes and bog lakes 27-02 [Crystal Bog], and 12-15 [Trout Bog]) at two to nine depths using a 2m long Schindler Patalas trap (53um mesh) and with vertical tows using a Wisconsin net (20cm diameter, 80um mesh). Zooplankton samples are preserved in buffered formalin (until 2001) or 95% ethanol (2001 onwards). Subsamples of the individual Schindler trap samples are combined to create a hypsometrically pooled sample which is counted for copepods, cladocerans, and rotifers. Data are summed over sex and stage to provide a lake-wide estimate of organisms per liter for each species. A minimum of 5 samples per lake-year are counted. The data set also contains length measurements for copepods and cladocerans. The Wisconsin net sample and the pooled sample are archived in the UW Zoology museum. Each year one complete set of Schindler Patalas depth samples collected in August is also archived. From 1981 to August 1986 - used a 0.5m high Schindler Patalas trap. Sampling Frequency: every two weeks during ice-free season, every 5 weeks during ice-cover. Number of sites: 7
Core Areas
Dataset ID
37
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
Schindler-Patalas trap samples are collected with a 2-meter high, 45L Schindler-Patalas trap with 53um mesh net at the deepest part of the lake. Samples are collected from specified target depths to include most or all of the water column, every two weeks during open water and every five weeks during ice cover. In addition, a vertical tow taken with an 80um mesh Wisconsin net is collected from the same location. Samples are preserved in the field with cold 95 percent EtOH.
For zooplankton counting, a hypsometrically pooled sample is created from subsamples of the individual Schindler Patalas samples. Subsample volumes are calculated using the hypsometric data for each lake, so that each subsample volume is proportional to the volume of lake water represented by the trap sample. A portion of the pooled sample is counted for copepods, cladocerans, and rotifers, identifying individuals to species or genus. All eggs are counted and length measurements are taken on copepods and cladocerans. Taxonomic resolution: A genus-only designation may mean a different species than the otherwise named species in that lake, or it may mean that the person counting only identified it to genus in that sample. Within one sample (same lake and date) it may be assumed that a genus only individual is a different species than other SameGenus/Named species in that count.
All records from 1981-1989 were modified in March 2015 to correct an error in how density had been calculated. Density values in many cases are significantly reduced. The table that was corrected in this case is dbmaker.zoop_all_density. Density values are modified from the original to final tables as they are summed or averaged over other variables (sample depth, replicate, and sex stage). The final table, where this website extracts density from, is dbmaker.zoop_allnl_summary_snap. Records after 1989 were already valid and did not require any modification.
Short Name
NTLPL03
Version Number
37
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