US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological Data - Crystal Lake 2011 - 2014

Abstract
Data from the instrumented buoy on Crystal Lake include micrometeorological parameters, relative humidity, air temperature, wind velocity, wind driection (2 m height),and water temperatures, pH, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen measured by a sonde that is moving through the water column.
Contact
Dataset ID
302
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
Data from the instrumented buoy on Crystal Lake include micrometeorological parameters, relative humidity, air temperature, wind velocity, wind direction (2 m height),and water temperatures, pH, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen measured by a sonde that is moving through the water column. Sampling Frequency: one minute;
Version Number
19

Additional Daily Meteorological Data for Madison Wisconsin (1884-2010)

Abstract
These data are in addition to "Madison Wisconsin Daily Meteorological Data 1869-current." Additional variables added include: daily cloud cover, wind, solar radiation, vapor pressure, dew point temperature, total atmospheric pressure, and average relative humidity for Madison, Wisconsin. In addition, the adjustment factors which were applied on a given date to calculate the adjusted parameters in "Madison Wisconsin Daily Meteorological Data 1869-current" are also included in these data. Raw data, in English units, were assembled by Douglas Clark - Wisconsin State Climatologist. Data were converted to metric units and adjusted for temporal biases by Dale M. Robertson. For adjustments applied to various parameters see Robertson, 1989 Ph.D. Thesis UW-Madison. Adjusted data represent the BEST estimated daily data and may be raw data. Data collected at Washburn observatory, 8-1-1883 to 9-30-1904. Data collected at North Hall, 10-1-1904 to 12-31-1947 Data collected at Truax Field (Admin BLDG), 1-1-1948 to 12-31-1959. Data collected at Truax Field, center of field, 1-1-1960 to Present. Much of the data after 1990 were obtained in digital form from Ed Hopkins, UW-Meteorology. Data starting in 2002-2005 were obtained from Sullivan at http://www.weather.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=mkx%20 ,then go to CF6 and download monthly data to Madison_sullivan_conversion. Relative humidity data was obtained from 1986 to 1995 from CD's at the State Climatologist's Office. Since Robertson (1989) adjusted all historical data to that collected prior to 1989; no adjustments were applied to the recent data except for wind and estimated vapor pressure. Wind after January 1997, and only wind from the southwest after November 2007, was extended by Dale M. Robertson and Yi-Fang "Yvonne" Hsieh, see methods. Estimated vapor pressure after April 2002 was updated by Yvonne Hsieh, see methods.
Dataset ID
282
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
Raw data (in English units) were assembled by Douglas Clark - Wisconsin State Climatologist. Data were converted to metric units and adjusted for temporal biases by Dale M. Robertson. For adjustments applied to various parameters see Robertson, 1989 Ph.D. Thesis UW-Madison. Adjusted data represent the BEST estimated daily data and may be raw data. Data collected at Washburn observatory, 8-1-1883 to 9-30-1904. Data collected at North Hall, 10-1-1904 to 12-31-1947 Data collected at Truax Field (Admin BLDG), 1-1-1948 to 12-31-1959. Data collected at Truax Field (Center of Field), 1-1-1960 to Present. Much of the data after 1990 were obtained in digital form from Ed Hopkins, UW-Meteorology. Data starting in 2002-05 were obtained from Sullivan at <a href="http://www.weather.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=mkx%20">http://www.weather.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=mkx</a> ,then go to CF6 and download monthly data to Madison_sullivan_conversion. Since Robertson (1989) adjusted all historical data to that collected from 1884-1989; no adjustments were applied to the recent data except for (1) wind and (2) estimated vapor pressure:(1) Wind after January 1997, and only wind from the southwest after November 2007, was extended by Dale M. Robertson and Yvonne Hsieh.In 1996, a discontinuity in the wind record was caused by change in observational techniques and sensor locations (Mckee et al. 2000). To address the non-climatic changes in wind speed, data from MSN were carefully compared with those collected from the tower of the Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Building at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, see http://ginsea.aos.wisc.edu/labs/mendota/index.htm. Hourly data from both sites (UMSN,hourly and UAOS,hourly) during 2003&ndash;2010 were used to form a 4&times;12 (four components of wind direction &times; 12 months) matrix (K4,12) of wind correction factors, yielding UAOS,daily= Ki,j&times;UMSN,daily. The comparison results indicated that the MSN weather station reported a higher magnitude in winds out of the east by 5% and lower magnitude in winds out of the west and south by 30% and 10%. The adjusted wind data (=Ki,j&times;UMSN,daily) were therefore employed and used in the model simulation. After adjustments, there was a decrease in wind velocities starting shortly before 1996. Overall the adjusted wind data had a decline in wind velocities of 16% from 1988&ndash;93 to 1994&ndash;2009) compared to a 7% decline at a nearby weather station with no known observational changes (St. Charles, Illinois; 150 km southeast of Lake Mendota). (2) Estimated vapor pressure was updated (after April 2002) by using the equation from DYRESM for estimation of vapor pressure (a function of both air temperature and dew point temperature); where a=7.5, b=237.3, and c=.7858.
Version Number
23

Minocqua Dam Monthly Meteorological Data at North Temperate Lakes LTER 1905 - current

Abstract
Minoqua Dam, Wisconsin. Meteorological measurements are being gathered at a site at the Minocqua Dam for these purposes: 1) to supplement the data from the raft on Sparkling Lake and 2) to provide standard meteorological measurements for the North Temperate Lakes site. The following parameters are measured and stored as monthly values: 1) mean daily air temperature, 2) mean maximum air temperature, 3) mean minimum air temperature, 4) total precipitation, and 5) total snowfall. Sampling Frequency: data averaged to monthly values Number of sites: 1
Dataset ID
19
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Metadata Provider
Methods
Standard National Weather Service weather station
Short Name
NTLME03
Version Number
28

Minocqua Dam Daily Meteorological Data at North Temperate Lakes LTER 1978 - current

Abstract
Meteorological measurements are being gathered at a site at the Minocqua Dam for these purposes: 1) to supplement the data from the raft on Sparkling Lake and 2) to provide standard meteorological measurements for the North Temperate Lakes site. The following parameters are measured and stored as daily values: 1) maximum air temperature, 2) minimum air temperature, 3) precipitation, 4) snowfall, and 5) snowdepth. Snowdepth data begin in 1996. Precipitation data are summed for 5- minute intervals during periods of detectable precipitation. Data are reported at 7am each day for the previous 24 hours. E.g, data for June 5 are for period 7am June 4 to 7am June 5. Sampling Frequency: data averaged to daily values Number of sites: 1
Dataset ID
18
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
Standard National Weather Service weather station set up.
Short Name
NTLME02
Version Number
31

Madison Wisconsin Daily Meteorological Data 1869 - current

Abstract
Daily air temperature, precipitation and snow depth data for Madison from 1869. For a full description of data prior to 1987 see Robertson, 1989 (Ph.D. Thesis). Raw data (in English units) prior to 1977 were assembled by Douglas Clark - Wisconsin State Climatologist. Data were converted to metric units and adjusted for temporal biases by Dale M. Robertson. Adjusted data represent the BEST estimated daily data and may be raw data. Daily temperature data prior to 1884 were estimated from 3 times per day sampling and biases are expected and should not be comparable with data after that time. For adjustments applied to various parameters see Robertson, 1989 Ph.D. Thesis UW-Madison. Douglas Clark had assembled and adjusted 1948 to 1977 data for his own research earlier. Data from 1989 to 1995 obtained from CD's at the Wis. State Climatologists Office. Air Temp adjusted to data at Truax Field. Data collected at Bascom Hall, 1-1-1869 to 9-30-1878. Data collected at North Hall, 10-1-1904 to 12-31-1947. Data collected at Browns Block, 10-1-1878 to 4-31-1883. Data collected at Truax Field (Admin BLDG), 1-1-1948 to 12-31-195. Data collected at North Hall, 5-1-1883 to 7-31-1883. Data collected at Truax Field (Center of Field), 1-1-1960 to Present. Data collected at Washburn observatory, 8-1-1883 to 9-30-1904. Wind data collected at Truax from 1-1-1947 to Present. Much of the data after 1990 were obtained in digital form from Ed Hopkins, UW-Meteorology Sampling Frequency: daily values Number of sites: 1
Dataset ID
20
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
For a full description of data prior to 1987 see Robertson, 1989 (Ph.D. Thesis). Raw data (in English units) prior to 1977 were assembled by Douglas Clark - Wisconsin State Climatologist. Data were converted to metric units and adjusted for temporal biases by Dale M. Robertson. Adjusted data represent the BEST estimated daily data and may be raw data. Daily temperature data prior to 1884 were estimated from 3 times per day sampling and biases are expected and should not be comparable with data after that time. For adjustments applied to various parameters see Robertson, 1989 Ph.D. Thesis UW-Madison. Douglas Clark had assembled and adjusted 1948 to 1977 data for his own research earlier. Data from 1989 to 1995 obtained from CD's at the Wis. State Climatologists Office. Air Temp adjusted to data at Truax Field. Data collected at Bascom Hall, 1-1-1869 to 9-30-1878. Data collected at North Hall, 10-1-1904 to 12-31-1947. Data collected at Browns Block, 10-1-1878 to 4-31-1883. Data collected at Truax Field (Admin BLDG), 1-1-1948 to 12-31-195. Data collected at North Hall, 5-1-1883 to 7-31-1883. Data collected at Truax Field (Center of Field), 1-1-1960 to Present. Data collected at Washburn observatory, 8-1-1883 to 9-30-1904. Wind data collected at Truax from 1-1-1947 to Present. Much of the data after 1990 were obtained in digital form from Ed Hopkins, UW-Meteorology Sampling Frequency: daily values Number of sites: 1
Short Name
NTLME04
Version Number
33

North Temperate Lakes LTER Meteorological Data - Woodruff Airport 1989 - current

Abstract
Meteorological measurements are being gathered at a site at the Noble F. Lee Municipal airport located at Woodruff, WI for three purposes: 1) to supplement the data from the raft on Sparkling Lake used for evaporation calculations, and 2) to provide standard meteorological measurements for the North Temperate Lakes site, and 3) to measure radiation for primary production studies in the study lakes at the site. The following parameters are measured at 1-minute intervals: 1) air temperature at 1.5 m above ground, 2) relative humidity at 1.5 m above ground, 3) wind speed and direction and peak windspeed at 3 m above ground, 4) total long-wave radiation, 5) total short-wave radiation, 6) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), 7) total solar radiation, and 8) total precipitation. High resolution data is taken, typically at 10 minute intervals, as well as 1-hour and 24-hour averages: Half-hourly averages of PAR and shortwave radiation are also stored. Precipitation data are summed for 5-minute intervals during periods of detectable precipitation. Derived data included in this data set include dewpoint temperature and vapor pressure, as well as daily minimum and maximum values for some parameters. Data are automatically updated into the database every six hours. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly, half-hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1. Date/time is Central Standard Time (GMT - 06:00) throughout the year.
Dataset ID
17
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
The following parameters are measured at 1-minute intervals: 1) air temperature at 1.5 m above ground, 2) relative humidity at 1.5 m above ground, 3) wind speed and direction and peak windspeed at 3 m above ground, 4) total long-wave radiation, 5) total short-wave radiation, 6) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), 7) total solar radiation, and 8) total precipitation. High resolution data is taken, typically at 10 minute intervals, as well as 1-hour and 24-hour averages: Half-hourly averages of PAR and shortwave radiation are also stored. Precipitation data are summed for 5-minute intervals during periods of detectable precipitation. Derived data included in this data set include dewpoint temperature and vapor pressure, as well as daily minimum and maximum values for some parameters. Data are automatically updated into the database every six hours. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly, half-hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1
Short Name
NTLME01
Version Number
33

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Sparkling Lake Raft 1989 - current

Abstract
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a dissolved oxygen and CO2 sensors, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity ( at 1, 2, and 3 m heights; but beginning in 2008, only at 2 m) ,and water temperatures (from thermistors placed throughout the water column at intervals varying from 0.5 to 3m) are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Other parameters measured include precipitation, wind direction (beginning in 2008), and barometric pressure (beginning in 2008). Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
4
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity ( at 1, 2, and 3 m heights; but beginning in 2008, only at 2 m) ,and water temperatures (from thermistors placed throughout the water column at intervals varying from 0.5 to 3m) are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Other parameters measured include precipitation, wind direction (beginning in 2008), and barometric pressure (beginning in 2008). Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min.Dissolved oxygen sensors: 2004-2006: Greenspan Technology series 1200; 2007-2016: Zebra-Tech Ltd. D-Opto; 2018+: OTT HydrolabCO2 sensors: 2018+: ProOceanos MiniCO2 for dissolved CO2; Eosense Inc. eosGP for atmospheric CO2
Short Name
NTLEV01
Version Number
33

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Sparkling Bog North Buoy 2008 - 2012

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Sparkling Bog North is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected either at 1 minute or 10 minute intervals. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface, thermistors are at the surface, at 0.25 m and at every .5 m from 0.5 m to 4.5 m, and meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and air temperature. The buoy is also equipped with a CO2 monitor and a YSI AutoProfiler that measures several parameters including dissolved oxygen, water temperature, conductivity, pH, ORP, turbulence and chlorophyll-a. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. Generally 1 minute or 10 minutes. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
227
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Short Name
NSPBBUOY1
Version Number
20

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Data: Meteorological, Dissolved Oxygen, Chlorophyll, Phycocyanin - Lake Mendota Buoy 2006 - current

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Lake Mendota is equipped with limnological and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are collected every minute. Hourly and daily averages are derived from the high resolution (1 minute) data. Hourly and daily values may not be current with high resolution data as they are calculated at the end of the season.

Meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, air temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Not all sensors are deployed each season. A list of sensors used since the first deployment in 2006 is provided as a downloadable CSV file.

Number of sites: 1. Location lat/long: 43.0995, -89.4045

Notable events:
2017 - A boating mishap caused the loss of air temperature, relative humidity, and wind sensors between May 28 and July 11. The dissolved oxygen sensor had significant biofouling from algae and zebra mussels.
2019 - A YSI EXO2 sonde was added to the buoy and includes DO, chlorophyll, phycocyanin, specific conductance, pH, fDOM, and turbidity sensors. The chlorophyll and phycocyanin sensors replace Turner Cyclops 7 fluorometers that had been in use in prior years. Both sets of sensors output RFU, but have significant magnitude differences. The YSI pH, DO, and specific conductance sensors were cleaned and recalibrated every two weeks.
2020 - Cleaning and calibration of the YSI sensors occurred nearly every week. The dissolved CO2 sensor was not operating between July 2 and September 17.


Core Areas
Dataset ID
129
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
See abstract for methods description
Short Name
MEBUOY1
Version Number
32

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Crystal Bog Buoy 2005 - 2014

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Crystal Bog is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface, thermistors are placed every 0.25m throughout the water column, and meteorological sensors measure wind speed, relative humidity, and air temperature. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
118
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Short Name
CBBUOY1
Version Number
11
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