The macrophyte surveys were performed at eight sites within each of the 60 lakes. The sites were chosen by randomly selecting two 50m segments of shoreline per compass quadrant of each lake. At each site, we examined the macrophytes to a depth of 2m along a 50 m long transect perpendicular to the shoreline, beginning at the center point of the 50m segment of shoreline selected for the site. Within a ? m2 quadrat at every meter mark, we noted the species present, the dominant species, the substrate composition and the total percent vegetation cover. If a depth of 2 m was reached before 20 quadrats were measured, a second transect was performed 25 m to the right of the initial point. The distances from shore at 1 m depth and 2 m depth were also recorded on each transect for an estimate of slope. Sampling Frequency: each site sampled once Number of sites: 60 Vilas County lakes were sampled from 2001-2004 (approximately 15 different lakes each year).At each site, we examined the littoral vegetation along a transect perpendicular to the shoreline. Within a 0.25 m2 quadrat at every meter mark, we recorded the total percent vegetation cover, dominant species and all species present to a water depth of 2 meters or 50 meters from shore. If a depth of 2 m was reached before 20 quadrats were measured, a second transect was performed 25 m to the right of the initial point. These observations were averaged to calculate percent total cover of vegetation in the littoral zone per lake (Marburg et al. 2005). The percent cover was transformed using arcsine square root of the decimal proportion.