US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

North Temperate Lakes LTER: Patterns of Soil Phosphorus Across an Urbanizing Agricultural Landscape 2000 - 2001

Abstract
Understanding the magnitude and location of soil phosphorus (P) accumulation in watersheds is a critical step toward managing runoff of this pollutant to aquatic ecosystems. Here, we examined the usefulness of urban-rural gradients (URGs), an emerging paradigm in urban ecology, for predicting soil P concentrations across a rapidly urbanizing agricultural watershed in southern Wisconsin. We compared several measures of an urban-rural gradient to predictors of soil P such as soil type, slope, topography, land use, land cover, and fertilizer and manure use. Most of the factors that were expected to drive differences in soil P concentrations were not found to be good predictors of soil P; while there were several significant relationships, most explained only a small proportion of the variation. There was a significant relationship between soil P concentration and each of the urban-rural gradients, but these relationships explained only a small amount of the variation in soil P concentrations. Soil P concentration, unlike some other ecosystem properties, is not well predicted by urban-rural gradients Additional Chemical Analyses: These additional analyses were done to provide comparisons to Bray-1 P. Specifically, we wanted to know whether, in Dane County, there was a consistent relationship between total P and Bray-1 P. For sample sites on private property, specific site location information, such as GPS coordinates, is not included in these datasets. If you have a need for this information, please get in touch with the contact person listed above Number of sites: 334; 20 of these sites with additional chem analyses
Core Areas
Dataset ID
105
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
A combination map, consisting of the information in both the population density map and the modified-distance map, was also created (Figure 2c). This map is simply based on a grid cell by grid cell multiplication of the reclassified values from the population density and the modified distance map. In this paper, I will refer to this map as the combination map.Data points for measuring soil P and associated factors were stratified by zone and randomly located within each zone according to the combination map—with approximately 70 data points per zone. Location and address of each point were determined using the Madison and Dane County parcel GIS layers. Permission was requested from landowners to take a soil sample, and the precise location of the sample on the property was determined using standard randomizing techniques. If permission was denied (2 cases out of 330) or if there was no one present at the location, a coin toss was used to determine movement one parcel to the right or to the left along the same road. Landowners were also asked about their fertilizer use practices, manure use, dog ownership, and the date the house was built, if known.Approximately 400 soil samples were taken in the top soil horizon to a depth of 13.5 cm with a standard soil corer (diameter = approximately 1.6 cm). This depth was always within the surface horizon and any grass thatch was removed from lawn samples. Other data collected include percent slope, convex or concave nature of the slope, land use, land-cover type, and percent vegetative cover. The visually perceived zone was also recorded. The visually perceived zone was determined by visual inspection using a predetermined set of definitions of each zone. For example, urban sites were those with the highest housing density or some industrial use; suburban sites were those of moderate housing density and residential character; suburban fringe were newer residential developments of low housing density and larger houses; agricultural fringe were older residential developments of low density; and agricultural were those areas that were actively farmed. A handheld global positioning device was used to determine the precise (± 1 m) location of the soil sample.Soil samples were stored for no more than 3 weeks at room temperature before analysis. They were then dried for 15–24 hours at 50–55degreeC and sieved (1.8-mm mesh). Soil samples were then analyzed for Bray-1 P at the University of Wisconsin Soil and Plant Analysis Lab. Bray-1, a measure of extractable P, is a commonly used measure of phosphorus available to plants in agricultural systems. While relationships between extractable soil P and dissolved P in runoff have been noted in some systems (Sharpley and others 1993, Sharpley 1995), these extractions were generally developed to estimate plant available P, not to reflect P storage in the soil or P runoff. Therefore, we tested a subset (60) of our samples for total P, a better measure of P storage in soils. A regression of our samples indicates a reasonably close relationship between Bray-1 P and total P in our study area soils (Figure 3), indicating that our Bray-1 P results are probably a satisfactory estimate of both extractable P and the sorbed P that tends to accumulate in agricultural soils.
Short Name
SOILPVC
Version Number
4

Historical Birge - Juday Lake Survey 1900 - 1943

Abstract
Data collected by Birge, Juday, and collaborators, mostly in north-central Wisconsin, from 1900 through 1943; generally one sampling event per lake during the summer, but on some lakes, especially around Trout Lake Station, several sampling events for several successive years. This data set contains both surface data (depth of zero) and multi-depth data. Note that not all variables were measured on all lakes. Documentation: Johnson, M.D. (1984) Documentation and quality assurance of the computer files of historical water chemistry data from the Wisconsin Northern Highland Lake District (the Birge and Juday data).Wisconsin DNR Technical Report. Note: Values of -99999 in water quality data indicate trace amount of parameter was present. Number of sites: 663 (generally one sampling point per lake; occasionally, several sampling points per lake on multibasin, large lakes). Note: This data set was updated in 2013 to include multi-depth and additional surface data for a large subset of lakes. These additions expanded the number of sites from 605 to 663, and expanded the date range from 1925-1942 to 1900-1943 . Furthermore, 14 lakes in Minnesota were added to the data set contributing additional surface and multi-depth data. Another dataset was added in 2013 collected by Wisconsin limnologists Chauncey Juday and Edward Birge, this data set contains variables that are still commonly used in research. For example, temperature, dissolved carbon dioxide, color, pH, secchi disk, plankton, and silica. However, the data set also includes variables that are not commonly used, for example, crude protein, non-amino nitrogen, ether extract, and total organic and inorganic material. These data are characteristic of water chemistry analysis from the time in which they were compiled (5/31/1915 - 8/29/1938). The data set features data from 586 different lakes, primarily lakes in the Northern Highland Lakes District of Wisconsin. However, there is also data from lakes in southeastern and southcentral Wisconsin. Furthermore, there is a minimal amount of data from lakes in Minnesota, Ohio,New York, Alaska, the Philippines, and the United Kingdom. Documentation:Birge, E.A., and Juday, C. 1922. The inland lakes of Wisconsin. The Plankton I. Its quantity and chemical composition. Bulletin, Wis. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey No. 64: (Scientific series 13), ix-222.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
106
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
Johnson, M.D. (1984) Documentation and quality assurance of the computer files of historical water chemistry data from the Wisconsin Northern Highland Lake District (the Birge and Juday data).Wisconsin DNR Technical Report.Methods not included in Johnson (1984):Nitrite Nitrogen- Sulphanilic acid procedure. Standard methods for the examination of water and sewage, Pub. Health Assn., New York, 5th edition, 1923, 13. Other Documentation: Domogalla, B.P., Juday, C., and Peterson, W.H. 1925. The forms of nitrogen found in certain lake waters. Jour. Biol. Chem. 63: 269-285.Ferric Ion- First calculated by subtracting ferrous ion from total iron measurements. Standard methods of water analysis. 1936. Amer. Pub. Health Assoc. P. 309. New York. Procedure was modified to determine ferric ion by acidifying samples by adding 1 milliliter of 3 N HCL to 50mL of lake water. With the iron samples in readiness, add 5 ml of the thiocyanate solution to the sample and to the standards, mix and compare immediately. (Standard Methods, Amer. Public Health Assoc. 8th ed., p. 75, 1936). Other documentation: Domogalla, B.P., Juday, C., and Peterson, W.H. 1925. The forms of nitrogen found in certain lake waters. Jour. Biol. Chem. 63: 269-285.Ferrous Ion- First calculated by ferricyanide method. Procedure was modified to determine ferrous ion by subtracting ferric ion from total iron. Documentation: Domogalla, B.P., Juday, C., and Peterson, W.H. 1925. The forms of nitrogen found in certain lake waters. Jour. Biol. Chem. 63: 269-285.Manganese- Determined by the persulfate method using the procedure described in Standard Methods of Water Analysis, Amer. Public Health Assoc., p. 84, 1936.Chlorophyll-a- A photometric method was used, in which the color of the light was confined to the wave-length 6200-6800 A which are absorbed by chlorophyll. Water samples of 5 to 15 liters (18 liters in the case of very low plankton content) were taken from different depths by using a hand operated vacuum pump), the water was the centrifuged at 25,000 rpm (for about 30 minutes). Residue was then washed with 98percent acetone, and CaCO3 was added to neutralize organic acids. This residue-acetone mixture was ground to extract the chlorophyll. The acetone extract was then filtered through filter paper into a flask, the residue being thoroughly washed with pure acetone. The light absorption of the extract was then measured. Procedure was carried out in a single day, under minimal light. Documentation: Kemmerer, G.I., and Hallett, L.T. 1938. Amount and distribution of the chlorophyll in some lakes of northeastern Wisconsin. Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci. 31: 411-438.Phosphate- Ceruleomolybdic method employed. Documentation: Juday, C., Birge, E.A., Kemmerer, G.I., Robinson, R.J. 1927. Phosphorus content of lake waters of northeastern Wisconsin. Trans. Wisconsin. Acad. Sci. 23: 233-248. Other Documentation: Robinson, R.J., Kemmerer, G.I. 1930. Determination of organic phosphorus in lake waters. Trans. Wisconsin. Acad. Sci. 25: 117-121.Redox Potential- Determined in situ on a given sampling date by use of a bright platinum electrode. Eh readings were made in millivolts. Documentation: Allgeier, R.J., Hafford, B.C., and Juday, C. 1941. Oxidation-reduction potentials and pH of lake waters and lake sediments. Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci. 33: 115-133.Note: The methodology used to determine copper, alumnium, boron, and hydrogen sulfide could not be determined.
Short Name
RGBIJD
Version Number
7
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