US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

Little Rock Lake Experiment at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Secchi Disk Depth; Other Auxiliary Sample Data 1983 - 2000

Abstract
The Little Rock Acidification Experiment was a joint project involving the USEPA (Duluth Lab), University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, University of Wisconsin-Superior, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Little Rock Lake is a bi-lobed lake in Vilas County, Wisconsin, USA. In 1983 the lake was divided in half by an impermeable curtain and from 1984-1989 the northern basin of the lake was acidified with sulfuric acid in three two-year stages. The target pHs for 1984-5, 1986-7, and 1988-9 were 5.7, 5.2, and 4.7, respectively. Starting in 1990 the lake was allowed to recover naturally with the curtain still in place. Data were collected through 2000. The main objective was to understand the population, community, and ecosystem responses to whole-lake acidification. Funding for this project was provided by the USEPA and NSF. Secchi Disk data were collected from the treatment and reference basins of Little Rock Lake at one station in the deepest part of each basin. Auxiliary data associated with each sampling event include time of day, air temperature, wind direction and speed, wave height, and cloud cover at the time of sampling. Sampling Frequency: varies - Number of sites: 2
Dataset ID
250
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
The disk is circular, 20 cm in diameter, and has alternating black and white quadrants. It is lowered using a calibrated Kevlar rope to minimize stretching. Readings are made on the shaded side of the boat without the aid of a plexiglass viewer. The points at which the disk disappears while being lowered and reappears while being raised are averaged to determine Secchi depth.
NTL Keyword
Short Name
LRSECC1
Version Number
4

Lake Wingra Exclosure Experiment at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Secchi Disk Depth 2005 - 2008

Abstract
Starting in late summer 2005, Wisconsin Dept of Natural Resources (WDNR), Dane County, Friends of Lake Wingra (FOLW), and NTL-LTER initiated a 3-year experiment in Lake Wingra to test the response of the native macrophyte community to clearer water produced from a major carp reduction program. This demonstration-scale experiment includes the construction of a 1.0-hectare rectangular carp exclosure with its solid vinyl walls extending from the lake shoreline to a water depth of 2.9 meters. NTL-LTER conducts the routine limnological monitoring of the lake and exclosure and is leading the science evaluation of potential lake restoration activities. The exclosure experiment was terminated in the fall of 2008. The exclosure was removed from Lake Wingra at that time. Sampling is done both within the exclosure and at a control site located nearby in the littoral zone. The sample location within the exclosure is equidistant from the side walls and approximately 75 meters from the shore in a water depth of approximately 2.5 meters. The control site sample location is approximately 75 meters west of the exclosure sample site at the same approximate distance from shore and water depth. Samples are taken at the same time and on the same schedule as the NTL-LTER limnological sampling on Lake Wingra, e.g., biweekly spring through summer, every 4 weeks in the fall, and once during the winter depending on ice conditions. Parameters measured within the exclosure and at the control site include water temperature, dissolved oxygen, secchi depth and chlorophyll-a. Additional parameters measured only within the exclosure include total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate + nitrite nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved reactive phosphorus and dissolved reactive silica. Secchi disk depth is measured within the exclosure and at a nearby control site in the littoral zone . The disk is circular, 20 cm in diameter, and has alternating black and white quadrants. It is lowered using a calibrated Kevlar rope to minimize stretching. Readings are made on the shaded side of the boat without the aid of a plexiglass viewer. The points at which the disk disappears while being lowered and reappears while being raised are averaged to determine Secchi depth. Other parameters measured at depth include water temperature and dissolved oxygen. Auxiliary data include time of day, air temperature, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, and wave height. Sampling Frequency: generally bi-weekly during ice-free season from late March or early April through early September, then every 4 weeks through late November. Number of sites: 2
Core Areas
Dataset ID
189
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
Secchi disk depth is measured within the exclosure and at a nearby control site in the littoral zone . The disk is circular, 20 cm in diameter, and has alternating black and white quadrants. It is lowered using a calibrated Kevlar rope to minimize stretching. Readings are made on the shaded side of the boat without the aid of a plexiglass viewer. The points at which the disk disappears while being lowered and reappears while being raised are averaged to determine Secchi depth.
Short Name
FOLWEXSE
Version Number
9

Biocomplexity at North Temperate Lakes LTER; Coordinated Field Studies: Coarse Woody Habitat Data 2001 - 2009

Abstract
These data were collected to test for changes in the population dynamics and the food webs of the fish populations of Little Rock and Camp lakes, Vilas County, WI, USA. Little Rock Lake was the site of a whole-lake removal of coarse woody habitat in 2002 and Camp Lake was the site of a whole-lake coarse woody habitat addition in 2004. Sampling began in May of 2001 and ended in August of 2006. Some sampling was repeated from 2007 to 2009. Number of sites: 4. Two lakes with reference and treatment basin in each lake.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
215
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
Fish were collected by beach seining, hook and line angling, and minnow traps. Commonly captured species were largemouth bass, bluegill, yellow perch, rock bass, and black crappie. Population Estimates: Chapman-modified continuous Schnabel mark-recapture population estimates were conducted on each basin of Little Rock and Camp lakes annually. Adult population estimates for largemouth bass, yellow perch, rock bass, and black crappie were calculated for Little Rock Lake during 2001-2006. All fish were captured by hook and line angling, minnow traps, and beach seining. Adult population estimates for largemouth bass and bluegill were calculated for Camp Lake during 2002-2006. All fish were captured by hook and line angling and beach seining. Fish Length/Weight Tag data: Length, weight, and mark data was recorded for all fish used to collect diet information. Diet information was collected from up to 15 individuals of each species biweekly May-September using gastric lavage. Diet information was collected from largemouth bass, yellow perch, rock bass, and black crappie in Little Rock Lake from 2001-2005 and 2007 - 2009. Diet information was collected from largemouth bass and yellow perch in Camp Lake from 2002-2005. Fish Length Tag data: Length and mark data was recorded for all fish used to calculate the mark-recapture population estimates. Length and the mark were recorded from all fish captured in Little Rock and Camp lakes from 2001-2006. Length and mark data exists for all fishes collected in Little Rock Lake from 2001-2006 and 2007 - 2009. Fish species from Little Rock include largemouth bass, yellow perch, rock bass, and black crappie. Length and mark data exists for all fishes collected in Camp Lake from 2002-2006. Fish species from Camp Lake include largemouth bass, yellow perch, and bluegill. All fish were captured by beach seining, hook and line angling, and minnow traps. Minnow trap CPUE: Minnow traps were the most effective gear for capturing yellow perch on Little Rock Lake. Standardized minnow trapping was conducted on both basins of Little Rock Lake in 2003-2005. In 2003, 10 minnow traps in each basin were deployed biweekly and picked twice per week. In 2004-2005, 20 minnow traps in each basin were deployed biweekly and picked twice per week. Catch per unit effort was calculated as catch of yellow perch per trap. Age Growth Rates: Growth rates were calculated for a subset of fish collected from Little Rock Lake (2001-2004) and Camp Lake (2002-2005). Back-calculated growth rates from five fish from every 10 mm size increment were examined. In the process, age was determined from scale samples and length at each annulus was back-calculated. Size-specific growth rates were calculated based on the relationship between fish length at age and ln transformed growth rate at age. Back-calculated growth information was assessed from largemouth bass, yellow perch, rock bass, and black crappie in Little Rock Lake. Back-calculated growth information was assessed from largemouth bass and bluegill in Camp Lake.
Short Name
BIOSASS1
Version Number
9

Biocomplexity at North Temperate Lakes LTER; Coordinated Field Studies: Secchi Disk Depth 2001 - 2004

Abstract
Chemical Limnology data collected for Biocomplexity Project; Landscape Context - Coordinated Field Studies Replicate chemical samples were pumped from the surface water (0.5m depth) and secchi depth was recorded at each lake. Temperature/dissolved oxygen profiles were taken throughout the water column at one meter intervals on all lakes. For more detail see the Water Sampling Protocol. Sampling Frequency: During 2001, temperature/dissolved oxygen profiles and secchi depths were taken twice during the stratified summer period. Chemistry samples were only taken once during the 2001 stratified period. From 2002 through 2004, all chemical and physical water samples were taken once during June (or resampled during the stratified period if June samples were bad). All lakes in which color, DIC/DOC, and chlorophyll samples were taken in 2001 were resampled in 2002 due to error in collection and/or analysis. Number of sites: 62 Vilas County lakes were sampled from 2001-2004 (approximately 15 different lakes each year).Allequash Lake, Anvil Lake, Arrowhead Lake, Bass Lake, Big Lake, Birch Lake, Ballard Lake, Big Muskellunge Lake, Black Oak Lake, Big Portage Lake, Brandy Lake, Big St Germain Lake, Camp Lake, Crab Lake, Circle Lily, Carpenter Lake, Day Lake, Eagle Lake, Erickson Lake, Escanaba Lake, Found Lake, Indian Lake, Jag Lake, Johnson Lake, Jute Lake, Katinka Lake, Lake Laura, Little Croooked Lake, Little Spider Lake, Little St Germain Lake, Little Crawling Stone Lake, Little John Lake, Lac Du Lune Lake, Little Rock Lake - North, Lost Lake, Little Rock Lake - South, Little Star Lake, Little Arbor Vitae Lake, Lynx Lake, Mccollough Lake, Moon Lake, Morton Lake, Muskellunge Lake, Nebish Lake, Nelson Lake, Otter Lake, Oxbow Lake, Palmer Lake, Pioneer Lake, Pallete Lake, Papoose Lake, Round Lake, Star Lake, Sparkling Lake, Spruce Lake, Stormy Lake, Twin Lake South, Tenderfoot Lake, Towanda Lake, Upper Buckatabon Lake, Vandercook Lake, White Sand Lake, Vilas County, WI, USA
Dataset ID
44
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
Lower the Secchi into the water on the shady side of the boat. Lower the disk until you cannot see it; record this depth as the down reading. Raise the disk until you can again see it; record this depth as the up reading.
Short Name
BIOSECH1
Version Number
6

Biocomplexity at North Temperate Lakes LTER; Coordinated Field Studies: Lakes 2001 - 2004

Abstract
The study lakes selected for the "cross-lake comparison" segment of the Biocomplexity Project include 62 lakes located in Vilas County, Wisconsin. The lakes were chosen to represent a range of positions on gradients of both human development and landscape position.Allequash Lake, Anvil Lake, Arrowhead Lake, Bass Lake, Big Lake, Birch Lake, Ballard Lake, Big Muskellunge Lake, Black Oak Lake, Big Portage Lake, Brandy Lake, Big St Germain Lake, Camp Lake, Crab Lake, Circle Lily, Carpenter Lake, Day Lake, Eagle Lake, Erickson Lake, Escanaba Lake, Found Lake, Indian Lake, Jag Lake, Johnson Lake, Jute Lake, Katinka Lake, Lake Laura, Little Croooked Lake, Little Spider Lake, Little St Germain Lake, Little Crawling Stone Lake, Little John Lake, Lac Du Lune Lake, Little Rock Lake - North, Lost Lake, Little Rock Lake - South, Little Star Lake, Little Arbor Vitae Lake, Lynx Lake, Mccollough Lake, Moon Lake, Morton Lake, Muskellunge Lake, Nebish Lake, Nelson Lake, Otter Lake, Oxbow Lake, Palmer Lake, Pioneer Lake, Pallete Lake, Papoose Lake, Round Lake, Star Lake, Sparkling Lake, Spruce Lake, Stormy Lake, Twin Lake South, Tenderfoot Lake, Towanda Lake, Upper Buckatabon Lake, Vandercook Lake, White Sand Lake, Vilas County, WI, USA
Dataset ID
209
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
Study Lakes We selected 60 northern temperate lake sites in Vilas County, Wisconsin lake district. Methods for lake choice and sampling are given in greater detail in Marburg et al. (2005) Each lake was sampled once between 2001 and 2004, in June, July, or August (15 different lakes each summer). We chose stratified lakes deeper than 4 m to insure that all the lakes contained a diverse fish community. With two exceptions (chains of lakes), lakes were chosen to be in separate watersheds. Lakes were chosen based on two criteria landscape position, using historical DNR water conductivity data as a proxy of position, and riparian housing development, measured in buildings km-1 shoreline (Marburg et al. 2005). Landscape position refers to the location of a lake along the hydrological gradient. The gradient ranges from the top of a drainage system, where seepage lakes are fed mainly by rainwater, through lakes which receive water from groundwater and have surface outflows, to lakes further down in the drainage system, which receive water from both ground and surface flow (Kratz et al. 1997).Landscape position affects lake water chemistry, because as water flows across the surface and through soil, it picks up carbonates and other ions which increase the waters electrical conductivity (specific conductance, a temperature-independent measure of salinity), alkalinity, and its ability to support algal and macrophyte production. In addition, aspects of lake morphology correlate with landscape position. Most obviously, larger lakes tend to occur lower in drainage systems (Riera et al. 2000).The riparian (near-shore terrestrial) zone around northern Wisconsin lakes is being rapidly developed for use as both summer and permanent housing (Peterson et al., 2003). Concurrent with housing development, humans often directly and indirectly remove logs (Kratz et al. 2002) and aquatic vegetation (Radomski and Goeman 2001) from the littoral zone (near shore shallow water area), resulting in reduced littoral zone complexity. The slowly-decaying logs of fallen trees create physical structure (coarse woody habitat CWH) in the littoral zone of lakes that provides habitat and refuge for aquatic organisms (Christensen et al. 1996). Fish, including plankton-eating species (planktivores), reproduce and develop in shallow water (Becker 1983). Because planktivorous fish affect zooplankton community structure through size-selective predation (Brooks and Dodson 1965), there is the potential for indirect effects of housing development on zooplankton.Lakes ranged in size from 24 to 654 ha. In 2001, 2002 and 2004 we chose lakes from the extreme ends of the conductivity and housing density gradients and in 2003 lakes were chosen to fill in the gap in the middle of the ranges. The study lakes range from oligotrophic to mesotrophic (Kratz et al. 1997 Magnuson et al. 2005).At each lake we sampled zooplankton, water chemistry, riparian and littoral vegetation, fish, crayfish, and macrophytes. Each lake was sampled only once, but given the large number of lakes sampled in this area, we expect to see relationships between variables within lakes and at a landscape scale. A snapshot sampling design maximizes sites that can be visited, and is sufficient for a general characterization of zooplankton communities (Stemberger et al. greater than 001).
Short Name
BIOLAKE1
Version Number
5

North Temperate Lakes LTER Wisconsin Estimated Secchi Depths

Abstract
This data set contains the estimated Secchi depth (water clarity) measurements for 8645 Wisconsin lakes, derived from Landsat-5 and -7 satellite imagery acquired during the 1999-2001 time period. For details of the process used to create these data, see: Chipman, J. W., T. M. Lillesand, J. E. Schmaltz, J. E. Leale, and M. J. Nordheim. 2004. “Mapping Lake Water Clarity with Landsat Images in Wisconsin, USA.” Invited paper, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, Special Issue on Remote Sensing and Resource Management in Nearshore and Inland Waters, 30(1):1-7. Polygons for each lake were taken from the WDNR 1:24,000-scale Hydrography GIS data set (version 2). Several existing fields were deleted, and new ones were added.
Dataset ID
161
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
For details of the process used to create these data, see: Chipman, J. W., T. M. Lillesand, J. E. Schmaltz, J. E. Leale, and M. J. Nordheim. 2004. “Mapping Lake Water Clarity with Landsat Images in Wisconsin, USA.” Invited paper, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, Special Issue on Remote Sensing and Resource Management in Nearshore and Inland Waters, 30(1):1-7. Polygons for each lake were taken from the WDNR 1:24,000-scale Hydrography GIS data set (version 2). Several existing fields were deleted, and new ones were added.
Purpose
<p>Mapping lake water clarity statewide.</p>
Short Name
NTLSP028
Version Number
24
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