US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

Cascade project at Norther Temperate Lake LTER – Daily Respiration Data for Whole Lake Nutrient Additions 2013-2015

Abstract
Daily estimates of ecosystem respiration and values of covariates from surface waters of Paul, Peter, and Tuesday lakes from mid-May to early September for the years 2013, 2014, and 2015. Inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus were added to Peter and Tuesday lakes each year while Paul Lake was an unfertilized reference.<br/>
Core Areas
Dataset ID
399
Date Range
-
Methods
Nutrients were added to Peter and Tuesday lakes to cause algal blooms. Details on nutrient additions (start/end dates, loading rates, N:P ratios) are described in Wilkinson et al. 2018. (Ecological Monographs 88:188-203). Methods are described in Pace et al. 2021 (Limnology and Oceanography linked below), Wilkinson et al. 2018 (Ecological Monographs 88:188-203), and Pace et al. 2017 (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 114: 352-357). These publications including supplements should be consulted for details.<br/>Nutrients were added to Peter and Tuesday lakes to cause algal blooms. Details on nutrient additions (start/end dates, loading rates, N:P ratios) are described in Wilkinson et al. 2018. (Ecological Monographs 88:188-203). Methods are described in Pace et al. 2021 (Limnology and Oceanography linked below), Wilkinson et al. 2018 (Ecological Monographs 88:188-203), and Pace et al. 2017 (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 114: 352-357). These publications including supplements should be consulted for details.<br/>Nutrients were added to Peter and Tuesday lakes to cause algal blooms. Details on nutrient additions (start/end dates, loading rates, N:P ratios) are described in Wilkinson et al. 2018. (Ecological Monographs 88:188-203). Methods are described in Pace et al. 2021 (Limnology and Oceanography linked below), Wilkinson et al. 2018 (Ecological Monographs 88:188-203), and Pace et al. 2017 (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 114: 352-357). These publications including supplements should be consulted for details.<br/>Nutrients were added to Peter and Tuesday lakes to cause algal blooms. Details on nutrient additions (start/end dates, loading rates, N:P ratios) are described in Wilkinson et al. 2018. (Ecological Monographs 88:188-203). Methods are described in Pace et al. 2021 (Limnology and Oceanography linked below), Wilkinson et al. 2018 (Ecological Monographs 88:188-203), and Pace et al. 2017 (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 114: 352-357). These publications including supplements should be consulted for details.<br/>
Version Number
1

Fluxes project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Spatial Metabolism Study 2007

Abstract
Data from a lake spatial metabolism study by Matthew C. Van de Bogert for his Phd project, "Aquatic ecosystem carbon cycling: From individual lakes to the landscape."; The goal of this study was to capture the spatial heterogeneity of within-lake processes in effort to make robust estimates of daily metabolism metrics such as gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R), and net ecosystem production (NEP). In pursuing this goal, multiple sondes were placed at different locations and depths within two stratified Northern Temperate Lakes, Sparkling Lake (n=35 sondes) and Peter Lake (n=27 sondes), located in the Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, respectively.Dissolved oxygen and temperature measurements were made every 10 minutes over a 10 day period for each lake in July and August of 2007. Dissolved oxygen measurements were corrected for drift. In addition, conductivity, temperature compensated specific conductivity, pH, and oxidation reduction potential were measured by a subset of sondes in each lake. Two data tables list the spatial information regarding sonde placement in each lake, and a single data table lists information about the sondes (manufacturer, model, serial number etc.). Documentation :Van de Bogert, M.C., 2011. Aquatic ecosystem carbon cycling: From individual lakes to the landscape. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. The University of Wisconsin - Madison, United States -- Wisconsin, p. 156. Also see Van de Bogert, M.C., Bade, D.L., Carpenter, S.R., Cole, J.J., Pace, M.L., Hanson, P.C., Langman, O.C., 2012. Spatial heterogeneity strongly affects estimates of ecosystem metabolism in two north temperate lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 57, 1689-1700.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
285
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
Data were collected from two lakes, Sparkling Lake (46.008, -89.701) and Peter Lake (46.253, -89.504), both located in the northern highlands Lake District of Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan over a 10 day period on each lake in July and August of 2007. Refer to Van de Bogert et al. 2011 for limnological characteristics of the study lakes.Measurements of dissolved oxygen and temperature were made every 10 minutes using multiple sondes dispersed horizontally throughout the mixed-layer in the two lakes (n=35 sondes for Sparkling Lake and n=27 sondes for Peter Lake). Dissolved oxygen measurements were corrected for drift.Conductivity, temperature compensated specific conductivity, pH, and oxidation reduction potential were also measured by a subset of sensors in each lake. Of the 35 sondes in Sparkling Lake, 31 were from YSI Incorporated: 15 of model 600XLM, 14 of model 6920, and 2 of model 6600). The remaining sondes placed in Sparkling Lake were 4 D-Opto sensors, Zebra-Tech, LTD. In Peter Lake, 14 YSI model 6920 and 13 YSI model 600XLM sondes were used.Sampling locations were stratified randomly so that a variety of water depths were represented, however, a higher density of sensors were placed in the littoral rather than pelagic zone. See Van de Bogert et al. 2012 for the thermal (stratification) profile of Sparkling Lake and Peter Lake during the period of observation, and for details on how locations were classified as littoral or pelagic. In Sparkling Lake, 11 sensors were placed within the shallowest zone, 12 in the off-shore littoral, and 6 in each of the remaining two zones, for a total of 23 littoral and 12 pelagic sensors. Similarly, 15 sensors were placed in the two littoral zones, and 12 sensors in the pelagic zone.Sensors were randomly assigned locations within each of the zones using rasterized bathymetric maps of the lakes and a random number generator in Matlab. Within each lake, one pelagic sensor was placed at the deep hole which is used for routine-long term sampling.Note that in Sparkling Lake this corresponds to the location of the long-term monitoring buoy. After locations were determined, sensors were randomly assigned to each location with the exception of the four D-Opto sensor is Sparkling Lake, which are a part of larger monitoring buoys used in the NTL-LTER program. One of these was located near the deep hole of the lake while the other three were assigned to random locations along the north shore, south shore and pelagic regions of the lake. Documentation: Van de Bogert, M.C., Bade, D.L., Carpenter, S.R., Cole, J.J., Pace, M.L., Hanson, P.C., Langman, O.C., 2012. Spatial heterogeneity strongly affects estimates of ecosystem metabolism in two north temperate lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 57, 1689-1700.
Version Number
17

Lake Metabolism

Study sites
We sampled surface waters of 31 lakes in the Northern Highland Lake district of Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during July and August of 2000 (Table 1). The lakes were chosen to span wide and orthogonal ranges in DOC and TP concentrations and for their close proximity to the Trout Lake Station in Vilas county, Wisconsin. The order in which the lakes were sampled was randomized.

North Temperate Lakes LTER: Physical Limnology of Primary Study Lakes 1981 - current

Abstract
Parameters characterizing the physical limnology of the eleven primary lakes (Allequash, Big Muskellunge, Crystal, Sparkling, Trout, bog lakes 27-02 [Crystal Bog] and 12-15 [Trout Bog], Mendota, Monona, Wingra and Fish) are measured at one station in the deepest part of each lake at 0.25-m to 1-m depth intervals depending on the lake. Measured parameters in the data set include water temperature, vertical penetration of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; not measured on lakes Mendota, Monona, Wingra, and Fish), dissolved oxygen, as well as the derived parameter percent oxygen saturation. Sampling Frequency: fortnightly during ice-free season - every 6 weeks during ice-covered season for the northern lakes. The southern lakes are similar except that sampling occurs monthly during the fall and typically only once during the winter (depending on ice conditions). Number of sites: 11
Core Areas
Dataset ID
29
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
Light (PAR) extinction coefficient is calculated by linearly regressing ln (FRLIGHT (z)) on depth z where the intercept is not constrained. FRLIGHT(z) = LIGHT(z) or DECK(z) where LIGHT(z) is light measured at depth z and DECK(z) is light measured on deck (above water) at the same time. For open water light profiles, the surface light measurement (depth z = 0) is excluded from the regression. For winter light profiles taken beneath the ice, the first light data are taken at the bottom of the ice cover and are included in the regression. The depth of uppermost light value is equal to the depth of the ice adjusted by the water level in the sample hole, i.e., the depth below the surface of the water. The water level can be at, above or below the surface of the ice. If the water level was not recorded, it is assumed to be 0.0 and the calculated light extinction coefficient is flagged. If ice thickness was not recorded, a light extinction coefficient is not calculated. For light data collected prior to March, 2007, light values less than 3.0 (micromolesPerMeterSquaredPerSec) are excluded. For light data collected starting in March 2007, light values less than 1.0 (micromolesPerMeterSquaredPerSec) are excluded. Except for bog lakes before August 1989, a light extinction coefficient is not calculated if there are less than three FRLIGHT values to be regressed. For bog lakes before August 1989, a light extinction coefficient is calculated if there are least two FRLIGHT values to be regressed. In these cases, the light extinction coefficient is flagged as non-standard. FRLIGHT values should be monotonically decreasing with depth. For light profiles where this is not true, a light extinction coefficient is not calculated. For samples for which light data at depth are present, but the corresponding deck light are missing, a light extinction coefficient is calculated by regressing ln (LIGHT (z)) on depth z. Note that if actual deck light had remained constant during the recording of the light profile, the resulting light extinction coefficient is the same as from regressing ln(FRLIGHT(z)). In these cases, the light extinction coefficient is flagged as non-standard. Oxygen and Temperature: We sample at the deepest part of the lake, taking a temperature and oxygen profile at meter intervals from the surface to within 1 meter of the bottom using a YSI Pro-ODO temporDO meter. We sample biweekly during open water and approximately every five weeks during ice cover. Protocol Log: Prior to 2011, we used a YSI Model 58 temporDO meter.
Short Name
NTLPH01
Version Number
29

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Water Temperature Data - Sparkling Lake Raft 1989 - current

Abstract
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature from depths ranging from the surface to 18m at intervals from 0.5 to 3m throughout the water column. The surface temperature sensors are attached to floats so that they are as close to the surface as feasible. The raft on Sparkling Lake is also equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity (1, 2, and 3 m heights), and water temperatures are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min. Number of sites: 1
Dataset ID
5
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Short Name
NTLEV02
Version Number
22

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Sparkling Lake Raft 1989 - current

Abstract
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a dissolved oxygen and CO2 sensors, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity ( at 1, 2, and 3 m heights; but beginning in 2008, only at 2 m) ,and water temperatures (from thermistors placed throughout the water column at intervals varying from 0.5 to 3m) are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Other parameters measured include precipitation, wind direction (beginning in 2008), and barometric pressure (beginning in 2008). Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
4
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity ( at 1, 2, and 3 m heights; but beginning in 2008, only at 2 m) ,and water temperatures (from thermistors placed throughout the water column at intervals varying from 0.5 to 3m) are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Other parameters measured include precipitation, wind direction (beginning in 2008), and barometric pressure (beginning in 2008). Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min.Dissolved oxygen sensors: 2004-2006: Greenspan Technology series 1200; 2007-2016: Zebra-Tech Ltd. D-Opto; 2018+: OTT HydrolabCO2 sensors: 2018+: ProOceanos MiniCO2 for dissolved CO2; Eosense Inc. eosGP for atmospheric CO2
Short Name
NTLEV01
Version Number
33

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Water Temperature Data - Sparkling Bog North Buoy 2008 - current

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Sparkling Bog North is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature at the surface, at 0.25 m and at every .5 m from 0.5 m to 4.5 m. The surface temperature sensors are attached to floats so that they are as close to the surface as feasible. The buoy is also equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, meteorological sensors, a CO2 sensor and a YSI AutoProfiler that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Prior to May 2009, data were collected at 1 minute or 10 minute intervals. Since May 2009, data are being collected each minute. Hourly and daily water temperature averages are computed from high resolution data. Hourly and daily values may not be current with high resolution data. In 2008, the instrumented buoy was deployed in Sparkling Bog North from March 24 to November 10. In 2009, the buoy was deployed on the ice on March 7 and was not removed for the winter of 2009 to 2010. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. Generally 1 minute or 10 minutes. Number of sites: 1
Dataset ID
228
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented buoy on Sparkling Bog North is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature at the surface, at 0.25 m and at every .5 m from 0.5 m to 4.5 m. The buoy is also equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, meteorological sensors, a CO2 sensor and a YSI AutoProfiler that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Prior to May 2009, data were collected at 1 minute or 10 minute intervals. Since May 2009, data are being collected each minute. Hourly and daily water temperature averages are computed from high resolution data. Hourly and daily values may not be current with high resolution data. In 2008, the instrumented buoy was deployed in Sparkling Bog North from March 24 to November 10. In 2009, the buoy was deployed on the ice on March 7 and was not removed for the winter of 2009 to 2010. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample.
Short Name
NSPBBUOY2
Version Number
18

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Sparkling Bog North Buoy 2008 - 2012

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Sparkling Bog North is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected either at 1 minute or 10 minute intervals. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface, thermistors are at the surface, at 0.25 m and at every .5 m from 0.5 m to 4.5 m, and meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and air temperature. The buoy is also equipped with a CO2 monitor and a YSI AutoProfiler that measures several parameters including dissolved oxygen, water temperature, conductivity, pH, ORP, turbulence and chlorophyll-a. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. Generally 1 minute or 10 minutes. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
227
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Short Name
NSPBBUOY1
Version Number
20

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Water Temperature Data - Lake Mendota Buoy 2006 - current

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Lake Mendota is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature. In 2006, the thermistors were placed every half-meter from the surface through 7m, and every meter from 7m to 15m. Since 2007, the thermistors were placed every half-meter from the surface through 2m, and every meter from 2m to 20m. The sensor at the water surface is as close to the surface as feasible. A list of sensors used since the first deployment in 2006 is provided as a downloadable CSV file. Hourly and daily water temperature averages are computed from high resolution (1 minute) data.

Sampling Frequency: one minute. Number of sites: 1. Location lat/long: 43.0995, -89.4045
Core Areas
Dataset ID
130
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
See abstract for methods description
Short Name
MEBUOY2
Version Number
30

Microbial Observatory at North Temperate Lakes LTER Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Lake Mendota 2000 - 2001

Abstract
Parameters characterizing the alkaline phosphatase activity of Lake Mendota. Samples were collected at one station in the deepest part of each lake from an integrated sample of the epilimnion.Sampling Frequency: fortnightly during ice-free season - every 6 weeks during ice-covered seasonNumber of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
45
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
BEFOREHAND prepare MUF-P substrate. Dissolve 180.04 mg of MUF-P in 120.0 mL total fresh Nanopure water to get 5 mM solution. Aliquot 1 mL each into thirty microcentrifuge tubes. Store in freezer. These aliquots will be thawed as needed.BEFOREHAND prepare borate buffer by dissolving 4.7675 g in 250 mL Nanopure water.PREPARE MUF standards the day before and store in cold room. Standards are prepared as follows: Prepare 5 mM MUF by adding 158.56 mg MUF in 100 mL. Vortex. Dilute 0.120 mL of 5 mM MUF in 15.0 mL total to get 40 uM solution. Prepare solutions for working standards as follows. Vortex solutions before dilutions.MUF Concentration (nM) - Preparation:0 -- 0 mL of 200 nM in 10 mL.10 -- 0.5 mL of 200 nM in 10 mL.50 -- 2.5 mL of 200 nM in 10 mL.100 -- 5 mL of 200 nM in 10 mL.200 -- 75 mL of 200 nM in 10 mL.THAW MUF-P substrate the day before in cold room.LABEL scintillation vials day before sampling. For substrate need one vial labelled 100 uM. For lake water sample need 9 vials. Three replicates samples are run for each of three size fractions. The three size fractions are less than 0.2 um water, less than 1 um water and less than 70 um (field filtered) water.DAY of sampling, filter borate buffer solution through a 0.2 um syringe filter. Dilute 0.300 mL of 5 mM MUF-P solution in 15.0 mL total Nanopure water to get 100 uM solution. Vortex MUF-P before aliquoting to samples.TURN on fluorometer to warm up (10 minutes) and set filters to 365 nm excitation, 460 nm emmission. Aliquot 10 mL of lake water into appropriate 20 mL scintillation vials labelled the day before.PERFORM measurement in room with fluorometer in the dark. First run the standard curve. If the standard curve does not appear to be linear, make new standards before running samples. If standard curve is good, add 0.010 mL of 100 uM MUF-P substrate to each ten mL sample for a final concentration of 100 nM. Note time when you spiked the samples.BEGIN immediately aliquoting 3.0 mL of sample each to glass test tubes. Aliquot all nine test ubes before adding borate buffer. Add 1.0 mL borate buffer to test tubes and mix. Note fluorescence. Continue with next sample. Do less than70, less than1 and less than 0.2 um replicates together to make more comparable (i.e. less than70 um replicate 1, less than 1 um replicate 1, less than 0.2 um replicate 1, less than 70 um replicate 2, etc.). Note time when finisihed running all initial samples. Put rest of samples in incubator.REPEAT measurements of sample for final time point thirty to sixty minutes later. Note time when you begin aliquoting 3 mL of samples to test tubes. Note time when final samples have all be run.
NTL Themes
Short Name
MOACT1
Version Number
5
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