US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

Pelagic, epilimnetic production estimates in Sparkling, Trout (Wisconsin), Acton (Ohio), and Castle (California) Lakes (USA) calculated using 14C and free-water O2 metabolism methods, 2007 - 2017

Abstract
Concurrent daily estimates of pelagic, eplilimnetic production (mmol C m3 d) generated from 14C incubations and diel changes in high frequency dissolved oxygen data (free-water). Original data derived from the North Temperate Lakes Long Term Ecological Research program (Sparkling [2007-2013], Trout [2007-2012] Lakes), Castle Lake Research Station (Castle Lake [2014-2017]), and Center for Aquatic and Watershed Sciences (Acton Lake [2010-2014]). 14C production estimates were generated as part of each research programs core data collection. Free-water production estimates generated using high frequency sensor data provided by research programs and Phillips (2020) time-varying, Bayesian metabolism model.<br/>
Core Areas
Dataset ID
397
Methods
14C Production Methods <br/>The approaches for estimating primary production in the study lakes using 14C incubations differed slightly between the three research programs, but all resulted in a similar estimate of daily epilimnetic pelagic production (mmol C m-3 d-1). In NTL lakes, integrated samples of water from the surface of the lake to the bottom of the epilimnion were collected between 2007 and 2013 using a 1.5 inch PVC tube approximately every two weeks during the open water season (first described in these lakes by Adams et al. 1993). Samples were labeled with inorganic 14C in the form of NaHCO3 and then incubated in the lab for 3-hr across a range of light intensities with additional dark bottles to correct for non-uptake sorption of 14C at ambient epilimnetic water temperature. The resultant photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) data was used to derive P-I curves by fitting a 3-parameter photosynthesis light-inhibition model (Platt et al. 1980) to these data. The P-I curves were coupled with concurrent, high-frequency photosynthetically active radiation (micromol m-2 s-1; PAR) measurements and water column light extinction data (m-1) to estimate daily primary production (mmol C m-3 d-1) in both Sparkling and Trout Lake. Over this time period, the availability of data for 14C production varied due to sporadic sample contamination and equipment failures.<br/>The approaches for estimating primary production in the study lakes using 14C incubations differed slightly between the three research programs, but all resulted in a similar estimate of daily epilimnetic pelagic production (mmol C m-3 d-1). In NTL lakes, integrated samples of water from the surface of the lake to the bottom of the epilimnion were collected between 2007 and 2013 using a 1.5 inch PVC tube approximately every two weeks during the open water season (first described in these lakes by Adams et al. 1993). Samples were labeled with inorganic 14C in the form of NaHCO3 and then incubated in the lab for 3-hr across a range of light intensities with additional dark bottles to correct for non-uptake sorption of 14C at ambient epilimnetic water temperature. The resultant photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) data was used to derive P-I curves by fitting a 3-parameter photosynthesis light-inhibition model (Platt et al. 1980) to these data. The P-I curves were coupled with concurrent, high-frequency photosynthetically active radiation (micromol m-2 s-1; PAR) measurements and water column light extinction data (m-1) to estimate daily primary production (mmol C m-3 d-1) in both Sparkling and Trout Lake. Over this time period, the availability of data for 14C production varied due to sporadic sample contamination and equipment failures.<br/>The approaches for estimating primary production in the study lakes using 14C incubations differed slightly between the three research programs, but all resulted in a similar estimate of daily epilimnetic pelagic production (mmol C m-3 d-1). In NTL lakes, integrated samples of water from the surface of the lake to the bottom of the epilimnion were collected between 2007 and 2013 using a 1.5 inch PVC tube approximately every two weeks during the open water season (first described in these lakes by Adams et al. 1993). Samples were labeled with inorganic 14C in the form of NaHCO3 and then incubated in the lab for 3-hr across a range of light intensities with additional dark bottles to correct for non-uptake sorption of 14C at ambient epilimnetic water temperature. The resultant photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) data was used to derive P-I curves by fitting a 3-parameter photosynthesis light-inhibition model (Platt et al. 1980) to these data. The P-I curves were coupled with concurrent, high-frequency photosynthetically active radiation (micromol m-2 s-1; PAR) measurements and water column light extinction data (m-1) to estimate daily primary production (mmol C m-3 d-1) in both Sparkling and Trout Lake. Over this time period, the availability of data for 14C production varied due to sporadic sample contamination and equipment failures.<br/>
Version Number
1

North Temperate Lakes LTER: Physical and Chemical Limnology of Lake Kegonsa and Lake Waubesa 1994 - current

Abstract
Physical and chemicals parameters of two Madison-area lakes in the Yahara chain not included as core NTL-LTER study lakes. Parameters include intermittently sampled water temperature, dissolved oxygen, ph, total alkalinity, chloride and sulfate. Nutrient data has been collected since 2015. Number of sites: 2.
Dataset ID
401
Date Range
-
DOI
10.6073/pasta/cc6f0e4d317d29200234c7243471472a
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Short Name
NTLCH01
Version Number
1

Lake Mendota Multiparameter Sonde Profiles: 2017 - current

Abstract
Intermittent sensor profiling at the deep hole of Lake Mendota began in 2017 with a YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde. Parameters include water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, phycocyanin, turbidity, and fDOM. Profiles are nominally 0 - 20 meters in depth in one meter increments, although the depth range and increments vary.

Core Areas
Dataset ID
400
Date Range
-
Instrumentation
YSI EXO2 Sonde
Publication Date
Version Number
1

Spatially Distributed Lake Mendota EXO Multi-Parameter Sonde Measurements Summer 2019

Abstract
This data was collected over 9 sampling trips from June to August 2019. 35 grid boxes were generated over Lake Mendota. Before each sampling effort, sample point locations were randomized within each grid box. Surface measurements were taken with an EXO multi-parameter sonde at the 35 locations throughout Lake Mendota during each sampling trip. Measurements include temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll, phycocyanin, turbidity, dissolved organic material, ODO, pH, and pressure.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
388
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Methods
Conducted weekly data sampling (9 boat trips in June-August 2019) using an EXO multi-parameter sonde to collect temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll (ug/L), phycocyanin (ug/L), turbidity, dissolved organic material, ODO, pH, and pressure at 35 locations based on GPS guided stratified random sampling. 35 grid boxes were generated over Lake Mendota using qGIS. Point locations within each grid box were randomized before each sampling effort. At each point, variables were recorded continuously with the EXO sonde for a two-minute period. Continuous data was overaged over the two-minute period for each sample point.
Publication Date
Version Number
1

North Temperate Lakes LTER Regional Survey water temperature DO 2015 - current

Abstract
The Northern Highlands Lake District (NHLD) is one of the few regions in the world with periodic comprehensive water chemistry data from hundreds of lakes spanning almost a century. Birge and Juday directed the first comprehensive assessment of water chemistry in the NHLD, sampling more than 600 lakes in the 1920s and 30s. These surveys have been repeated by various agencies and we now have data from the 1920s (UW), 1960s (WDNR), 1970s (EPA), 1980s (EPA), 1990s (EPA), and 2000s (NTL). The 28 lakes sampled as part of the Regional Lake Survey have been sampled by at least four of these regional surveys including the 1920s Birge and Juday sampling efforts. These 28 lakes were selected to represent a gradient of landscape position and shoreline development, both of which are important factors influencing social and ecological dynamics of lakes in the NHLD. This long-term regional dataset will lead to a greater understanding of whether and how large-scale drivers such as climate change and variability, lakeshore residential development, introductions of invasive species, or forest management have altered regional water chemistry.
Water temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles were taken on sampling days.
Contact
Dataset ID
382
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Methods
water temperature and dissolved oxygen were measured at 1 meter intervals with a opto sonde
Version Number
1

Cascade Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER High Frequency Sonde Data from Food Web Resilience Experiment 2008 - 2011

Abstract
High-frequency sonde data collected from the surface waters of two lakes in Upper Peninsula of Michigan during the summers of 2008-2011. The food web of Peter Lake was slowly transformed by gradual additions of Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) while Paul Lake was an unmanipulated reference. Sonde data were used to calculate resilience indicators to evaluate the stability of the food web and to calculate ecosystem metabolism.
Dataset ID
360
Date Range
-
Methods
Data were collected at 5 minute intervals using in-situ automated sensors (sondes). All measurements and samples were collected from a stationary raft over the deepest part of the lake.
Sondes were suspended from floats with probes at a depth of 0.75m below the surface. Sonde sensors were cleaned daily in the field and calibrated monthly following manufacturer guidelines. Peter and Paul lakes were each monitored with two YSI multiparameter sondes (model 6600 V2-4) fitted with optical DO (model 6150), pH (model 6561), optical Chl-a (model 6025), and conductivity-temperature (model 6560) probes. Sensor measurements were made at 0.75 m every 5 min and were calibrated weekly. PAR was measured and the UNDERC meteorology station maintained by the University of Notre Dame or by the North Temperate Lakes Weather Station at Woodruff Airport.
Outliers were replaced by NA. Occasional gaps in the record due to instrument cleaning are NA.
Version Number
1

Cascade Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER Core Data Physical and Chemical Limnology 1984 - 2016

Abstract
Physical and chemical variables are measured at one central station near the deepest point of each lake. In most cases these measurements are made in the morning (0800 to 0900). Vertical profiles are taken at varied depth intervals. Chemical measurements are sometimes made in a pooled mixed layer sample (PML); sometimes in the epilimnion, metalimnion, and hypolimnion; and sometimes in vertical profiles. In the latter case, depths for sampling usually correspond to the surface plus depths of 50percent, 25percent, 10percent, 5percent and 1percent of surface irradiance.
Dataset ID
352
Date Range
-
Methods
Methods for 1984-1990 were described by Carpenter and Kitchell (1993) and methods for 1991-1997 were described by Carpenter et al. (2001).
Version Number
14

Spatial variability in water chemistry of four Wisconsin aquatic ecosystems - High speed limnology Environmental Science and Technology datasets

Abstract
Advanced sensor technology is widely used in aquatic monitoring and research. Most applications focus on temporal variability, whereas spatial variability has been challenging to document. We assess the capability of water chemistry sensors embedded in a high-speed water intake system to document spatial variability. We developed a new sensor platform to continuously samples surface water at a range of speeds (0 to > 45 km hr-1) resulting in high-density, meso-scale spatial data. Here, we archive data associated with an Environmental Science and Technology publication. Data include a single spatial survey of the following aquatic ecosystems: Lake Mendota, Allequash Creek, Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River, and Trout Bog. Data have been provided in three formats (raw, hydraulic-corrected, and tau-corrected).
Dataset ID
337
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Methods
The Fast Limnology Automated Measurement (FLAMe) platform is a novel flow-through system designed to sample inland waters at both low- (0 to appr. 10 km hr-1) and high-speeds (10 to greater than 45 km hr-1) described in Crawford et al. (2015). The FLAMe consists of three components: an intake manifold that attaches to the stern of a boat; a sensor and control box that contains hoses, valves, a circulation pump and sensor cradles; and a battery bank to power the electrical components. The boat-mounted intake manifold serves multiple purposes. First, sensors are mounted inside the boat, protecting them from potential damage. Second, the intake system creates a constant, bubble-free water flow, thus preventing any issues for optical sensors due to cavitation. Finally, to analyze dissolved gases, a constant water source is needed on board. Water flow via both the slow- and high-speed intakes is regulated by the onboard impeller pump, allowing for seamless switching between slow- and high-speed operations. Any number of sensors could be integrated into the platform with simple modifications, and can be combined with common limnological instruments such as acoustic depth-finders. In our example applications we used a YSI EXO2 multiparameter sonde (EXO2; Yellow Springs, OH, USA), and a Satlantic SUNA V2 optical nitrate (NO3) sensor (Halifax, NS, Canada), both integrated into the control box plumbing with flow-through cells available from the manufacturer. Additionally, a Los Gatos Research ultraportable greenhouse gas analyzer (UGGA) (cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer; Mountain View, CA, USA) was used to measure dry mole fraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) dissolved in surface water by equilibrating water with a small headspace using a sprayer-type equilibration system that has previously been shown to have fast response times relative to other designs16 (Figure S1). Both the EXO2 and the UGGA are capable of logging data at 1 Hz. Because the SUNA was operated out of the water and on a boat during warm periods, data were collected less frequently (appr. 0.1 Hz) to minimize lamp-on time and avoid the lamp temperature cutoff of 35° C. The EXO2 sonde uses a combination of electrical and optical sensors for: specific conductivity, water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), chlorophyll-a fluorescenece, and phycocyanin fluorescence. The SUNA instrument measures NO3 using in situ ultraviolet spectroscopy between 190-370 nm, has a detection range of 0.3-3000 microM NO3, and a precision of 2 microM NO3. The UGGA has a reported precision of 1 ppb (by volume). In order to translate time-series data from the instruments into spatial data, we also logged latitude and longitude at 1 Hz with a global positioning system (GPS) with the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) functionality enabled allowing for less than 3 m accuracy for 95percent of measured coordinates. Synchronized time-stamps from the EXO2, UGGA, SUNA, and GPS were used to combine data streams into a single spatially-referenced dataset.
We ran a simple set of experiments to determine the residence time of the system and the overall response time of the EXO2 and UGGA sensors integrated into the platform. After determining first-order response characteristics of each sensor, we applied an ordinary differential equation method to correct the raw data for significant changes in water input resulting in higher accuracy spatial data (see Crawford et al. 2015).
Sensor response experiments
We conducted a series of sensor response experiments on Lake Mendota on August 1, 2014. The goal was to understand the potential lags and minimum response times for the EXO2 and UGGA sensors integrated into the FLAMe platform. These data were then used to develop correction procedures for higher accuracy spatial datasets. To test sensor responses to step-changes in water chemistry, we mixed a 40 L tracer solution into a plastic carboy that was connected to the reservoir port on the FLAMe. The reservoir was mixed with 50 mL of rhodamine WT to test the phytoplankton fluorescence sensors, 6 mL of quinine sulfate solution in acid buffer (100 QSE) to test the fDOM sensor, 14 g of KCl to test the conductivity sensor, and appr. 2 kg of ice to reduce the temperature of the solution relative to lake water. The mixture volume was increased to 40 L using tap water. We did not modify the CO2 concentration or pH in the carboy as we found the municipal water source to have greater than ambient lake CO2 (4300 vs. 290 microatm, respectively) and lower pH (7.5 vs 8.3, respectively). At the beginning of the experiments, we allowed lake water to circulate through the system for appr. 10 minutes. We then switched to the tracer solution for a period of five minutes, followed by five minutes of lake water, then back to the tracer solution for an additional five minutes.
Using the step-change experiment data, we determined each sensors hydraulic time constant (Hr) and parameter time constant (taus). The sensor-specific Hr is a function of system water residence time and sensor position/shielding within the system. Taus is the time required for a 63 percent response to a step-change input. Hr was calculated based on the plateau experiments and was indicated by the first observation with a non-zero rate of change. The CO2 and CH4 sensors had a much greater Hr than the EXO2 sensors because water must travel further through the system before equilibrating with the gas solution being pumped to the UGGA. Using these Hr values, we offset response variables thus removing the hydraulic lag. This correction does not account for sensor-specific response patterns (tau s). The EXO2 sensors have manufacturer-reported taus values between 2-5 s, but these values are not appropriate to apply to the FLAMe system because they do not include system hydraulic lag and mixing. In order to match sensor readings with spatial information, we first applied Hr values from each sensor output according to equation 2. This step aligns the time at which each sensor begins responding to the changing water, and accounts for the physical distance the water must travel before being sensed
In order to match individual sensor response characteristics and to obtain more accurate spatial data, we then applied sensor-specific corrections using Equation 3 (Fofonoff et al., 1974).
We first smoothed the raw data using a running mean of 3 observations in order to reduce inherent noise of the 1 Hz data. We then calculated dX/dt using a 3-point moving window around Xc. Equation 3 should ideally lead to a step response to a step-change input. We note that this is the same strategy used to correct oceanographic conductivity and temperature instruments (see Fozdar et al., 1985). Overall, the taus-corrected data show good responses to step-change inputs and indicate that this is a useful technique for generating higher accuracy spatial data. We include three types of data for each variable including: raw (e.g., TempC), the hydraulic lag corrected (e.g., TempC_hydro) and the taus-corrected data (e.g., TempC_tau). Note that not all sensors were used in each survey and not all sensors have each type of correction. This data was from our preliminary FLAMe sampling campaigns and future studies will include additional sensor outputs and corrections.
We used the FLAMe throughout the summer of 2014 on four distinct aquatic ecosystems including: a small dystrophic lake, a stream/lake complex, a medium-sized eutrophic lake, and a managed reach of the Upper Mississippi River. Each of these applications demonstrates the spatial variability of surface water chemistry and the flexibility of FLAMe for limnological research.
References
Crawford JT, Loken LC, Casson NJ, Smith C, Stone AG, and Winslow LA (2015) High-speed limnology: Using advanced sensors to investigate spatial variability in biogeochemistry and hydrology. Environmental Science and Technology 49:442-450.
Fozdar FM, Parker GJ, and Imberger J (1985) Matching temperature and conductivity sensor response characteristics. Journal of Physical Oceanography 15:1557-1569.
Version Number
14

CLA Yahara Lakes Citizen Offshore Water Quality Monitoring 2016 - 2017

Abstract
In 2013, Clean Lakes Alliance (CLA) launched a Citizen Water Quality Monitoring pilot. Objectives included evaluating and tracking nearshore water quality conditions on all five Yahara lakes: Lakes Mendota, Monona, Waubesa, Kegonsa and Wingra. In 2016, in order to fully understand the interaction between the offshore and nearshore
environment, CLA volunteers will begin sampling the deepest point (deep hole) of all Yahara lakes. The offshore monitoring program will focus on two components: water clarity sampling and dissolved oxygen and temperature measurement. Data from the offshore monitoring program will be compared to data from the nearshore program.
Contact
Creator
Dataset ID
330
Date Range
-
Methods
On Lakes Mendota, Monona, Waubesa, Kegonsa and Wingra, volunteers will use a Secchi disk to measure water clarity, and a digital handheld thermometer to measure air and surface water temperatures once per week on Thursday mornings . Secchi depth monitoring will take place at the deepest point of each lake. On Lakes Monona and Waubesa, concurrent with Secchi sampling, volunteers will use a YSI 550A multiprobe meter to measure dissolved oxygen and temperature at multiple depths. All volunteers are trained by Clean Lakes Alliance staff.
Version Number
2

North Temperate Lakes LTER High Frequency Water Temperature Data, Dissolved Oxygen, Chlorophyll, pH - Crystal Lake 2011 - 2014

Abstract
Data from the instrumented buoy on Crystal Lake include micrometeorological parameters, relative humidity, air temperature, wind velocity, wind driection (2 m height),and water temperatures, pH, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen measured by a sonde that is moving through the water column.
Dataset ID
303
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
Data from the instrumented buoy on Crystal Lake include micrometeorological parameters, relative humidity, air temperature, wind velocity, wind driection (2 m height),and water temperatures, pH, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen measured by a sonde that is moving through the water column.
Version Number
20
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