US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

Lake snow removal experiment phytoplankton community data, under ice, 2019-2021

Abstract
Although it is a historically understudied season, winter is now recognized as a time
of biological activity and relevant to the annual cycle of north-temperate lakes. Emerging
research points to a future of reduced ice cover duration and changing snow conditions that
will impact aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the study was to explore how altered snow and ice
conditions, and subsequent changes to under-ice light environment, might impact ecosystem
dynamics in a north, temperate bog lake in northern Wisconsin, USA. This dataset resulted from
a snow removal experiment that spanned the periods of ice cover on South Sparkling Bog during
the winters of 2019, 2020, and 2021. During the winters 2020 and 2021, snow was removed from
the surface of South Sparkling Bog using an ARGO ATV with a snow plow attached. The 2019
season served as a reference year, and snow was not removed from the lake. This dataset
represents phytoplankton community samples (pooled epilimnion and hypolimnion samples
representative of 7 m water column) both under-ice and during some shoulder-season (open
water) dates. Samples were collected into amber bottles and preserved with Lugol's solution
before they were sent to Phycotech Inc. (St. Joseph MI, USA) for phytoplankton taxonomic
identification and quantification.<br/>
Core Areas
Creator
Dataset ID
418
Data Sources
Date Range
-
Methods
Phytoplankton samples were obtained from the epilimnion and hypolimnion by
slowly lowering weighted Tygon tubing through the water column to a depth of 7 m, such
that the tubing was filled with a representative water column sample. Based on the inner
diameter of the tubing, 205 mL of water was pumped from the tubing for the epilimnion
sample. Next, 267 mL of water was pumped from the tubing for the hypolimnion sample. Each
sample was collected into a 250 mL amber bottle that contained 2 mL of Lugol’s solution.
Phytoplankton samples were pooled by sampling date and sent to Phycotech Inc. (St. Joseph
MI, USA) for phytoplankton identification, and concentration and biovolume
quantification.<br/>
Publication Date
Version Number
1

Aquatic snail and macrophyte abundance and richness data for ten lakes in Vilas County, WI, USA, 1987-2020

Abstract
Data accompanying the paper Szydlowski et al. "Three decades of lake monitoring
reveals community recovery after population declines of invasive rusty crayfish (Faxonius
rusticus)." Macrophytes and snails were sampled in ten lakes in Vilas County, Wisconsin, USA
during summer sampling events in 1987, 2002, 2011, and 2020. Lakes had varying levels of
invasion by F. rusticus, which affected measures of macrophytes and snails. Macrophytes were
sampled using a point-intercept transect method and snails were sampled using different
sampler types which were dependent on substrate. Macrophytes were sampled at 6-14 sites per
lake and snails were sampled at 16-31 sites per lake. Overall, this dataset provides abundance
and richness data for over 25 species of snails and over 40 species of macrophytes in north
temperate lakes.<br/>
Core Areas
Dataset ID
417
Methods
Sampling methods are described by Szydlowski et al. "Three decades of lake
monitoring reveals community recovery after population declines of invasive rusty crayfish
(Faxonius rusticus)," but are provided here for convenience. Instrumentation is further
documented in the supplementary information of the paper. Macrophytes were sampled during
July and August at a subset of crayfish sampling sites within our ten study lakes (n =
6–14 sites per lake) that were selected in 1987 to capture a variety of substrates and
both east and west sun exposure. Sampling depths were randomly assigned to sites during
initial sampling in 1987 as either 0.75 m, ½ of Secchi depth, or ¾ of Secchi depth, with
1987 Secchi depths used for all subsequent sampling years for macrophyte surveys. We
followed the line-intercept method to sample macrophytes, using snorkeling and SCUBA to
visually identify and determine the presence or absence of macrophyte species along a 25 m
transect set parallel to shore at the pre-determined depth for each sampling site.
Transects were marked at 1 m intervals, with the first 10 cm of each interval marked by a
band of tape. Divers moved along the transect recording the presence or absence of each
macrophyte species crossing the vertical plane of each 10 cm band. The line-intercept
method allowed us to obtain a measure of both macrophyte species richness and abundance.
Because just presence or absence of macrophyte species was recorded, and only at each 10
cm band, our measurements provide an index for abundance and a minimum estimate for
species richness. Freshwater snails were sampled at locations historically sampled for
crayfish (n = 24 or 36 sites per lake) between late June and early August. As with
macrophytes, snails were sampled at randomly assigned depths of either 0.75 m, ½ of Secchi
depth, or ¾ of Secchi depth. While the same absolute depths were used in 1987 and 2002
based on 1987 Secchi values, depths in 2011 and 2020 were determined using year-specific
Secchi values. Most sampling depths in 2011 and 2020 varied only slightly from the 1987
and 2002 values, but in two lakes the change in sampling depth was greater than one meter
due to larger shifts in water clarity. The greatest changes in sampling depth (2.7 m in
Papoose Lake and 1.5 m in Little John Lake) occurred at the ¾ Secchi depth sites, whereas
the ½ Secchi depth sites were less affected by the change in water clarity in these two
lakes. We sampled snails using methods and equipment designed for each habitat type
present in our study lakes (soft substrates, macrophytes, and cobble). For soft substrates
such as sand and muck (flocculent sediment or sediment rich in organic material), we used
a cylindrical polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sediment corer (0.018 m2), which we used to take a
5 cm sediment core. For sites with soft substrates where macrophytes were present, we used
a modified PVC sampler of the same size but with two hinged PVC halves, and a net made of
1-mm mesh attached to the top. We carefully closed the two halves of the PVC sampler
around macrophytes growing at the surface and zippered the mesh net around taller
macrophytes before pushing the corer into the sediment to collect a 5 cm core. Collecting
the macrophyte material along with the sediment allowed us to sample any snails on the
macrophytes along with those in the sediment. At the water’s surface we sieved (with 1 mm
mesh) all cores from soft substrates to remove fine sediments and large particles and
picked through macrophyte material for snails. Finally, for cobble habitats, we placed a
ring (0.1 or 0.5 m2) on the substrate at each site to define a sampling area. In 1987 and
2002, the 0.1 m2 ring was used for sites with a high density of snails, and the 0.5 m2
ring was used for sites with a low density of snails. In 2011 and 2020, we used the 0.5 m2
ring at all sites. We gently collected the surface layer of rocks within the sampling ring
and briefly brought the rocks to the surface, where we scraped attached material into a
collection pan and funneled it through a 1 mm mesh sieve to gather snails. We stored
snails collected using all sampling methods in 70% ethanol for later identification. In
the lab, we picked snails from all samples and identified them to species or genus (for
Physella sp.) according to Burch (1989) and Johnson et al. (2013), with revisions for
Lymnaeidae (Hubendick 1951) and Planorbidae (Hubendick and Rees 1955). We calculated snail
abundance as density to account for differences between the sediment corers and the rings
in area sampled. Snail samples from 1987 were lost in a laboratory flood, but specimens
from 2002 and 2011 are vouchered at the Notre Dame Museum of Biodiversity in Notre Dame,
Indiana, USA. Specimens from 2020 are vouchered at the Illinois Natural History Survey
Mollusk Collection at the University of Illinois in Champaign, Illinois, USA. In 2020, we
were not able to sample macrophytes and snails using SCUBA due to limitations from the
COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we excluded a small portion of deeper sites (approximately
2% of total macrophyte sites and 13% of total snail sites) that could not be sampled
accurately and safely while snorkeling. In addition, because of a few lost samples, data
from previous sampling years were not always available for each site. Consequently, in our
datasets of macrophytes and snails, we only include sites for which we had data in all
four sampling years (n = 100 sites/year for macrophytes, n = 208 sites/year for snails).
In our snail data, we only included snails which were alive at the time of sampling (i.e.,
we did not include empty shells).<br/>
Publication Date
Version Number
1

Lake snow removal experiment zooplankton community data, under ice, 2019-2021

Abstract
Although it is a historically understudied season, winter is now recognized as a time
of biological activity and relevant to the annual cycle of north-temperate lakes. Emerging
research points to a future of reduced ice cover duration and changing snow conditions that
will impact aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the study was to explore how altered snow and ice
conditions, and subsequent changes to under-ice light environment, might impact ecosystem
dynamics in a north, temperate bog lake in northern Wisconsin, USA. This dataset resulted from
a snow removal experiment that spanned the periods of ice cover on South Sparkling Bog during
the winters of 2019, 2020, and 2021. During the winters 2020 and 2021, snow was removed from
the surface of South Sparkling Bog using an ARGO ATV with a snow plow attached. The 2019
season served as a reference year, and snow was not removed from the lake. This dataset
represents under ice zooplankton community samples (integrated tows at depths of 7 m) and some
shoulder-season (open water) zooplankton community samples. Zooplankton samples were preserved
in 90% ethanol and later processed to determine taxonomic classification at the species-level,
density (individuals / L), and average length (mm).<br/>
Contact
Core Areas
Creator
Dataset ID
414
Date Range
-
Methods
Our study lake, South Sparkling Bog (SSB) (46.003°N, 89.705°W), is a bog lake
located in Vilas County in Northern Wisconsin. South Sparkling Bog is a dystrophic,
dimictic lake with a maximum depth of 8 m, a mean depth of 3.6 m, and a surface area of
0.44 ha. South Sparkling Bog is surrounded by a sphagnum bog mat and has no shoreline
development. During the winters of 2019-2020 and 2020-2021, snow was removed from the
surface of South Sparkling Bog following any snow accumulation event. Removal was
conducted via a snowplow attached to the front of an ARGO all-terrain vehicle and a
snowblower. The winter of 2018-2019 served as a reference year, and snow was not removed
from South Sparkling Bog’s surface. While ice cover persisted, plankton samples were
collected at the deep spot for each lake during on a biweekly-to-monthly basis each
winter. On each sampling date, one integrated zooplankton tow was taken at a depth of 0-7
m using a 56 µm mesh Wisconsin net. All zooplankton samples were collected into glass
sample jars, preserved in 90% ethanol, and saved for laboratory analysis. In the lab,
zooplankton samples were filtered through 53 µm mesh and diluted to a known volume, and
three sub-sample replicates were taken using a 1 mL Hensen-Stempel pipette. Sub-sample
replicates were counted to at least 100 individuals, otherwise the entire sample was
quantified. Sub-sample data was then converted to the known diluted volume and finally
converted to total filtered volume (from the integrated tow sample) to estimate density
(individuals L-1). Zooplankton samples were processed using a Leica M8Z dissecting scope
and Leica imaging software. Replicate subsamples were averaged to estimate total abundance
and density, and average lengths (mm) for each sample taxa were calculated from measures
of the first 30 taxa found within a sample date.<br/>
Publication Date
Version Number
1

North Temperate Lakes LTER Regional Survey Zooplankton 2015 - current

Abstract
The Northern Highlands Lake District (NHLD) is one of the few regions in the world with periodic comprehensive water chemistry data from hundreds of lakes spanning almost a century. Birge and Juday directed the first comprehensive assessment of water chemistry in the NHLD, sampling more than 600 lakes in the 1920s and 30s. These surveys have been repeated by various agencies and we now have data from the 1920s (UW), 1960s (WDNR), 1970s (EPA), 1980s (EPA), 1990s (EPA), and 2000s (NTL). The 28 lakes sampled as part of the Regional Lake Survey have been sampled by at least four of these regional surveys including the 1920s Birge and Juday sampling efforts. These 28 lakes were selected to represent a gradient of landscape position and shoreline development, both of which are important factors influencing social and ecological dynamics of lakes in the NHLD. This long-term regional dataset will lead to a greater understanding of whether and how large-scale drivers such as climate change and variability, lakeshore residential development, introductions of invasive species, or forest management have altered regional water chemistry. Zooplankton samples were taken at approximately the deepest part of each lake, via a vertical tow with a Wisconsin net. Count of individuals and presence absence data for all lakes in the study region are provided here.
Contact
Core Areas
Dataset ID
381
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Methods
One zooplankton sample was collected in June 2015 at the deepest part of each lake, via vertical tow with a Wisconsin net (20cm diameter, 80um mesh). Contents of the net were preserved in the field with cold 95% ethanol. Subsamples of each vertical tow sample were counted for zooplankton species, using enough volume to count at least 300 individuals. A larger volume was then visually scanned to look for presence of additional species not seen in the count volume, until at least 2000 individuals had been seen.

Version Number
1

Little Rock Lake Experiment at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Zooplankton length 1988 - 1998

Abstract
The Little Rock Acidification Experiment was a joint project involving the USEPA (Duluth Lab), University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, University of Wisconsin-Superior, University of Wisconsin-Madison, and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Little Rock Lake is a bi-lobed lake in Vilas County, Wisconsin, USA. In 1983 the lake was divided in half by an impermeable curtain and from 1984-1989 the northern basin of the lake was acidified with sulfuric acid in three two-year stages. The target pHs for 1984-5, 1986-7, and 1988-9 were 5.7, 5.2, and 4.7, respectively. Starting in 1990 the lake was allowed to recover naturally with the curtain still in place. Data were collected through 2000. The main objective was to understand the population, community, and ecosystem responses to whole-lake acidification. Funding for this project was provided by the USEPA and NSF. Zooplankton samples are collected from the treatment and reference basins of Little Rock Lake at at two to nine depths using a 30L Schindler Patalas trap (53um mesh). Zooplankton samples are preserved in buffered formalin and archived. Data are summed over sex and stage and integrated volumetrically over the water column to provide a lake-wide estimate of average length of organisms for each species.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
375
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Methods
We collect zooplankton samples at the deepest part of the lake using two different gear types. We take one vertical tow with a Wisconsin Net (80um mesh), and a series of Schindler Patalas (53um mesh) samples spanning the water column. All samples are preserved in cold 95percent EtOH.
After collection we combine subsamples of the individual Schindler Patalas trap samples to create one hypsometrically pooled sample for each lakeordate. The individual depth samples are discarded after pooling except from one August sampling date per year. The Hypsometrically Pooled sample and the Wisconsin Net sample are archived in the UW Zoology museum.
We count zooplankton in one or two subsamples, each representing 1.8L of lake water, of the hypsometrically pooled samples to calculate zooplankton abundance. We count one sample date per month from the open water season, and the February ice cover sample. We identify individuals to genus or species, take length measurements, and count eggs and embryos.
Protocol log: 1981-May1984 -- a 0.5m high, 31L Schindler Patalas trap with 80um mesh net was used. Two Wisconsin Net tows were collected. Preservative was 12percent buffered formalin.
June1984 -- changed to 53um mesh net on Schindler trap.
July1986 -- began using the 2m high, 45L Schindler Patalas trap. Changed WI Net collection to take only one tow.
2001 -- changed zooplankton preservative from 12percent buffered formalin to 95percent EtOH.
The number of sample dates per year counted varies with lake and year, from 5 datesoryear to 17 datesoryear.
1981-1983 -- pooled samples are of several types: Total Pooled (TP) were created using equal volume subsamples of the Schindler samples. Epi, Meta, Hypo pooled used equal volume subsamples from the Schindler samples collected from each of the thermal strata. Strata Pooled used equal volume subsamples from the Epi, Meta, Hypo pooled samples to create an entire lake sample. Hypsometrically Pooled (HP) is our standard, which uses subsample volumes weighted to represent the hypsometry of the lake.
Version Number
1

Long-term fish abundance data for Wisconsin Lakes Department of Natural Resources and North Temperate Lakes LTER 1944 - 2012

Abstract
This dataset describes long-term (1944-2012) variations in the relative abundance of fish populations representing nine species in Wisconsin lakes. Data were collected by Wisconsin Department of Natural Resource fisheries biologists as part of routine lake fisheries assessments. Individual survey methodologies varied over space and time and are described in more detail by Rypel, A. et al., 2016. Seventy-Year Retrospective on Size-Structure Changes in the Recreational Fisheries of Wisconsin. Fisheries, 41, pp.230-243. Available at: http://afs.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03632415.2016.1160894
Contact
Core Areas
Creator
Dataset ID
356
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Methods
Fisheries surveys of inland lakes and streams in Wisconsin have been conducted by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) professionals and its predecessor the Wisconsin Conservation Department for >70 y. Standard fyke net and boat electrofishing surveys tend to dominate the fisheries surveys and data collected. Most fyke net data on certain species (e.g., Walleye Sander vitreus and Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) originates from annual spring netting surveys following ice-out. These data are used for abundance estimates, mark and recapture surveys for estimating population sizes, and egg-take procedures for the hatcheries. Boat-mounted boom and mini-boom electrofishing surveys became increasingly common in the late 1950s and 1960s. Boat electrofishing surveys have typically been conducted during early summer months (May and June), but some electrofishing survey data are also collected in early spring as part of walleye and muskellunge mark-recapture surveys. Summer fyke netting surveys have been collected more sporadically over time, but were once more commonly used as a panfish survey methodology. Surveys were largely non-standardized. Thus, future users and statistical comparisons utilizing these data should acknowledge the non-standard nature of their collection. More in-depth description of these data can be found in Rypel, A. et al., 2016. Seventy-Year Retrospective on Size-Structure Changes in the Recreational Fisheries of Wisconsin. Fisheries, 41, pp.230-243. Available at: http://afs.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03632415.2016.1160894
Version Number
5

Cascade Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER Core Data Phytoplankton 1984 - 2015

Abstract
Data on epilimnetic phytoplankton from 1984-2015, determined by light microscopy from pooled Van Dorn samples at 100 percent, 50 percent, and 25 percent of surface irradiance. St. Amand (1990) and Cottingham (1996) describe the counting protocols in detail. Samples after 1995 were counted by Phycotech Inc. (http://www.phycotech.com). Sampling Frequency: varies; Number of sites: 5
Dataset ID
353
Date Range
-
Methods
Samples counted prior to 1996 were assigned one taxon name with all taxonomic information. This taxon name was split into distinct columns of genus, species and description for archival as best possible. Samples from 2013-2015 were sent to Phycotech inc. (http://www.phycotech.com/) to be counted.
Version Number
16

Microbial Observatory at North Temperate Lakes LTER High-resolution temporal and spatial dynamics of microbial community structure in freshwater bog lakes 2005 - 2009 original format

Abstract
The North Temperate Lakes - Microbial Observatory seeks to study freshwater microbes over long time scales (10+ years). Observing microbial communities over multiple years using DNA sequencing allows in-depth assessment of diversity, variability, gene content, and seasonal/annual drivers of community composition. Combining information obtained from DNA sequencing with additional experiments, such as investigating the biochemical properties of specific compounds, gene expression, or nutrient concentrations, provides insight into the functions of microbial taxa. Our 16S rRNA gene amplicon datasets were collected from bog lakes in Vilas County, WI, and from Lake Mendota in Madison, WI. Ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing of freshwater environmental DNA was performed on samples from Crystal Bog, North Sparkling Bog, West Sparkling Bog, Trout Bog, South Sparkling Bog, Hell’s Kitchen, and Mary Lake. These microbial time series are valuable both for microbial ecologists seeking to understand the properties of microbial communities and for ecologists seeking to better understand how microbes contribute to ecosystem functioning in freshwater.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
349
Date Range
-
Methods
Protocol available in methods section of: http://msphere.asm.org/content/2/3/e00169-17
Prior to collection, water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations are measured using a YSI 550a. The ranges of the epilimnion and hypolimnion are determined based on the location of the thermocline (where temperature/oxygen is changing the fastest). The two layers are collected separately in 1 meter increments using an integrated water column sampler. Water samples are taken back to the lab, shaken thoroughly, and filtered via peristaltic pump through 0.22 micron filters (Pall Supor). Filters are temporarily stored at -20C after collection and then transferred to -80C after transport on dry ice from Trout Lake Station to UW-Madison. Nutrient samples are collected bi-weekly following standard LTER protocols. DNA is extracted from filters using a FASTDNA SpinKit for Soil with minor modifications. (In cases of low yield or specialized sequencing methods, a phenol-chloroform extraction is used instead). The protocol for sequencing and analysis of data varies by year and by sub-project.
Version Number
4

North Temperate Lakes LTER Regional Survey Macrophytes Plant Index 2015 - current

Abstract
The Northern Highlands Lake District (NHLD) is one of the few regions in the world with periodic comprehensive water chemistry data from hundreds of lakes spanning almost a century. Birge and Juday directed the first comprehensive assessment of water chemistry in the NHLD, sampling more than 600 lakes in the 1920s and 30s. These surveys have been repeated by various agencies and we now have data from the 1920s (UW), 1960s (WDNR), 1970s (EPA), 1980s (EPA), 1990s (EPA), and 2000s (NTL). The 28 lakes sampled as part of the Regional Lake Survey have been sampled by at least four of these regional surveys including the 1920s Birge and Juday sampling efforts. These 28 lakes were selected to represent a gradient of landscape position and shoreline development, both of which are important factors influencing social and ecological dynamics of lakes in the NHLD. This long-term regional dataset will lead to a greater understanding of whether and how large-scale drivers such as climate change and variability, lakeshore residential development, introductions of invasive species, or forest management have altered regional water chemistry. The purpose of the macrophyte survey is to identify, and quantify the types of aquatic plants within the various 28 regional survey lakes. The macrophyte survey consists of sampling macrophyte plants using a metal rake attached to a 15ft pole at approximately 140 spatially resolved points on a lake that are spread out in a grid like fashion, equally spaced from each other. Sampling locations were chosen such that the maximum depth at which macrophytes were surveyed was equal to or less than 15ft of water. Macrophyte sampling occurs in the latter part of the summer (after July 10) to ensure that macrophytes have had adequate time to grow and our sampling efforts capture the typical summer macrophyte community in each lake. Macrophyte sampling in these 28 lakes is ongoing and will be repeated approximately once every six years.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
338
Date Range
-
Methods
the protocol employed here is based on:
Hauxwell, J., S. Knight, K. Wagner, A. Mikulyuk, M. Nault, M. Porzky and S. Chase . 2010. Recommended baseline monitoring of aquat ic plants in Wisconsin : sampling design, field and laboratory procedures, data entry and analys is, and applica tions. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Bureau of Science Services, PUB-SS-1068 2010. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Version Number
13

Microbial Observatory at North Temperate Lakes LTER North Sparkling Bog Experiment 2007 - 2009

Abstract
For lake microbes, water column mixing acts as a disturbance because it homogenizes thermal and chemical gradients known to define the distributions of microbial taxa. Our first objective was to isolate hypothesized drivers of lake bacterial response to water column mixing. To accomplish this, we designed an enclosure experiment with three treatments to independently test key biogeochemical changes induced by mixing: oxygen addition to the hypolimnion, nutrient addition to the epilimnion, and full water column mixing. We used molecular fingerprinting to observe bacterial community dynamics in the treatment and control enclosures, and in ambient lake water. We found that oxygen and nutrient amendments simulated the physical-chemical water column environment following mixing and resulted in similar bacterial communities to the mixing treatment, affirming that these were important drivers of community change. These results demonstrate that specific environmental changes can replicate broad disturbance effects on microbial communities. Our second objective was to characterize bacterial community stability by quantifying community resistance, recovery and resilience to an episodic disturbance. The communities in the nutrient and oxygen amendments changed quickly (had low resistance), but generally matched the control composition by the 10th day after treatment, exhibiting resilience. These results imply that aquatic bacterial assemblages are generally stable in the face of disturbance.
Dataset ID
294
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
Experimental designThe experiment was conducted from 16 to 26 June 2008. In the first treatment, oxygen was added to the hypolimnion. In the second, nutrients were added to the epilimnion. The third treatment simulated a mixing event (overturn). There also was a control enclosure with no treatment and sampling of the ambient lake water. Throughout this manuscript, we refer to these as Oxygen, Nutrient, Mix, Control and Ambient.Twelve limnocorrals were constructed as enclosures for the experiment. Each limnocorral was cylindrical and extended vertically from the surface of the lake to the sediment (approximately 4 m). The total volume was approximately 5050 l. Details of limnocorral construction are provided in online Supporting Information.The limnocorrals were deployed on 15 June 2008 to allow the sediment and water column to stabilize before treatment on 16 June 2008. The limnocorrals were deployed in a random spatial arrangement throughout the lake, at a maximum depth of 3.25 to 3.5 m. Replicates from each treatment were instrumented with a chain of HOBO temperature sensors (Onset), and one replicate from each had a self-logging DO sonde (Yellow Springs Incorporated) in the hypolimnion (3 m depth). More thermistors were deployed in the Oxygen and Mix treatments because thermal stratification was important for evaluating success of these treatments.For the Mix treatment, a 60 cm flat disk was raised and lowered between 3.5 m depth and the lake surface. Holes were drilled through the disk surface to increase turbulence (Sanford, 1997; Regel et al., 2004). A brick was tied underneath the disk to maintain stability. We manually oscillated the disk every 10 min for 1 h and then, after a 1 h break, continued for an additional hour. Temperature and DO profiles were monitored within the limnocorral with a hand-held probe to track mixing progress.The goal of the Oxygen treatment was to aerate the hypolimnion water without allowing it to mix with the epilimnion. This treatment was achieved by pumping hypolimnion water from the bottom of the limnocorral into an external cooler where the water was aerated with bubble diffusers, and then returned to the bottom of the limnocorral (Fig. S1). Valves on a compressed air cylinder were used to control the delivery of air to the coolers. One cooler was maintained for each replicate limnocorral. Thermally insulated tubing was used to transport water. A thermistor was deployed in each cooler to ensure ambient hypolimnion temperature was maintained. The water was removed and returned using two linear diffusers that were 0.6 m in length, spanning a depth range of approximately 2.5&ndash;3.1 m within the hypolimnion. The diffusers faced inward with 0.5 m fixed distance between them, retained by a plastic divider. This treatment was applied continuously over 3 h, until DO concentrations increased.The Nutrient treatment was achieved by adding ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and potassium phosphate monobasic (KH2PO4) as N and P sources. These compounds were chosen because they are commonly bioavailable sources of nutrients. P was added to the epilimnion to achieve a final concentration of 3 micro g P l&minus;1, which was approximately the average concentration expected in the mixed water column. This value was based on nutrient analyses from integrated water collected on 9 June 2008 in North Sparkling Bog, a week prior to experiment start. Similarly, N was added to achieve a final concentration of 70 &micro;g N l&minus;1. The limnocorral s epilimnion volume (0&ndash;2 m integrated depth) was calculated to be 2520 l, and we used the molar mass to determine the amount of each nutrient added to the epilimnion to achieve the expected mixed concentration. Dry chemicals were dissolved into to 500 ml of surface water from each limnocorral, and then added into each separately. Rationale for directly manipulating only one layer in the Oxygen and Nutrient treatments is given in the online Supporting Information.The Control limnocorrals were left undisturbed. To prevent mixing during equipment removal, all tubing was left inside the limnocorrals until the experiment ended.
Short Name
NB0789
Version Number
13
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