US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

LTREB Biological Limnology at Lake Myvatn 2012-current

Abstract
These data are part of a long-term monitoring program in the central part of Myvatn that represents the dominant habitat, with benthos consisting of diatomaceous ooze. The program was designed to characterize import benthis and pelagic variables across years as midge populations varied in abundance. Starting in 2012 samples were taken at roughly weekly inervals during June, July, and August, which corresponds to the summer generation of the dominant midge,<em>Tanytarsus gracilentus</em>.
Creator
Dataset ID
296
Date Range
-
Maintenance
Ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
Benthic Chlorophyll Field sampling (5 samples) (2012, 2013)1. Take 5 cores from the lake2. Cut the first 0.75 cm (1 chip) of the core with the extruder and place in deli container. Label with date and core number.3. Place deli containers into opaque container (cooler) and return to lab. This is the same sample that is used for the organic matter analysis.In 2014, the method for sampling benthic chlorophyll changed. The calculation of chlorophyll was changed to reflect the different area sampled. Below is the pertinent section from the methods protocols. Processing after the collection of the sample was not changed.Take sediment samples from the 5 cores collected for sediment characteristics. Take 4 syringes of sediment with 10mL syringe (15.96mm diameter). Take 4-5cm of sediment. Then, remove bottom 2cm and place top 2cm in the film canister.Filtering1. Measure volume of material in deli container with 60mL syringe and record.2. Homogenize and take 1mL sample with micropipette. The tip on the micropipette should be cut to avoid clogging with diatoms. Place the 1mL sample in a labeled film canister. Freeze sample at negative 20 degrees Celsius unless starting methanol extraction immediately.3. Add 20mL methanol. This methanol can be kept cool in the fridge, although then you will need a second bottle of methanol for the fluorometer. Shake for 5 sec.4. After 6-18 hours, shake container for 5 sec.Fluorometer1. Allow the film canisters to sit at room temperature for approximately 15 min to avoid excessive condensation on the glass tubes. Shake tubes for 5 sec after removing from fridge but then be careful to let them settle before removing sample.2. Record the sample information for all of the film canisters on the data sheet.3. Add 4mL of sample to a 13x100mL glass tube.4. Insert the sample into the fluorometer and record the reading in the Fluor Before Acid column. The sample reading should be close to one of the secondary solid standards (42ug/L or 230ug/L), if not, dilute the sample to within 25 per cent of the secondary solid standards (30-54ug/L or 180-280ug/L). It is a good idea to quickly check 2mL of a sample that is suspected to be too high to get an idea if other samples may need to be diluted. If possible, read the samples undiluted.5. If a sample needs to be diluted, use a 1000 microLiter pipette and add 2mL of methanol to a tube followed by 2mL of undiluted sample. Gently invert the tube twice and clean the bottom with a paper towel before inserting it into the fluorometer. If the sample is still outside of the ranges above, combine 1 mL of undiluted sample with 3 mL of methanol. Be sure to record the dilution information on the data sheet.6. Acidify the sample by adding 120microLiters of 0.1 N HCl (30microLiters for every one mL of sample). Then gently invert the sample and wait 90 seconds (we used 60 seconds in 2012, the protocol said 90) before putting the sample into the fluorometer and recording the reading in the Fluor After Acid column. Be sure to have acid in each tube for exactly the same amount of time. This means doing one tube at a time or spacing them 30-60 seconds apart.7. Double check the results and redo samples, which have suspicious numbers. Make sure that the after-acidification values make sense when compared to the before acidification value (the before acid/after acid ratio should be approximately the same for all samples).Clean up1. Methanol can be disposed of down the drain as long as at least 50 times as much water is flushed.2. Rinse the film canisters and lids well with tap water and scrub them out with a bottle brush making sure to remove any remaining filter paper. Give a final rinse with distilled water. Pelagic Chlorophyll Field sampling (5 samples)1. Take 2 samples at each of three depths, 1, 2, and 3m with Arni&rsquo;s zooplankton trap. For the 1m sample, drop the trap to the top of the chain. Each trap contains about 2.5L of water when full. 2. Empty into bucket by opening the bottom flap with your hand.3. Take bucket to lab.Filtering1. Filter 1L water from integrated water sample (or until the filter is clogged) through the 47 mm GF/F filter. The pressure used during filtering should be low ( less than 5 mm Hg) to prevent cell breakage. Filtering and handling of filters should be performed under dimmed lighting.2. Remove the filter with forceps, fold it in half (pigment side in), and put it in the film canister. Take care to not touch the pigments with the forceps.3. Add 20mL methanol. This methanol can be kept cool in the fridge, although then you will need a second bottle of methanol for the fluorometer. Shake for 5 sec. and place in fridge.4. After 6-18 hours, shake container for 5 sec.5. Analyze sample in fluorometer after 24 hours.Fluorometer1. Allow the film canisters to sit at room temperature for approximately 15 min to avoid excessive condensation on the glass tubes. Shake tubes for 5 sec after removing from fridge but then be careful to let them settle before removing sample.2. Record the sample information for all of the film canisters on the data sheet.3. Add 4mL of sample to a 13x100mL glass tube.4. Insert the sample into the fluorometer and record the reading in the Fluor Before Acid column. The sample reading should be close to one of the secondary solid standards (42ug/L or 230ug/L), if not, dilute the sample to within 25 percent of the secondary solid standards (30-54ug/L or 180-280ug/L). It is a good idea to quickly check 2mL of a sample that is suspected to be too high to get an idea if other samples may need to be diluted. If possible, read the samples undiluted.5. If a sample needs to be diluted, use a 1000uL pipette and add 2mL of methanol to a tube followed by 2mL of undiluted sample. Gently invert the tube twice and clean the bottom with a paper towel before inserting it into the fluorometer. If the sample is still outside of the ranges above, combine 1 mL of undiluted sample with 3 mL of methanol. Be sure to record the dilution information on the data sheet.6. Acidify the sample by adding 120 microLiters of 0.1 N HCl (30 microLiters for every one mL of sample). Then gently invert the sample and wait 90 seconds (we used 60 seconds in 2012, the protocol said 90) before putting the sample into the fluorometer and recording the reading in the Fluor After Acid column. Be sure to have acid in each tube for exactly the same amount of time. This means doing one tube at a time or spacing them 30-60 seconds apart.7. Double check the results and redo samples, which have suspicious numbers. Make sure that the after-acidification values make sense when compared to the before acidification value (the before acid/after acid ratio should be approximately the same for all samples).Clean up1. Methanol can be disposed of down the drain as long as at least 50 times as much water is flushed.2. Rinse the film canisters and lids well with tap water and scrub them out with a bottle brush making sure to remove any remaining filter paper. Give a final rinse with distilled water. Pelagic Zooplankton Counts Field samplingUse Arni&rsquo;s zooplankton trap (modified Schindler) to take 2 samples at each of 1, 2, and 3m (6 total). For the 1m sample, drop the trap to the top of the chain. Each trap contains about 2.5L of water when full. Integrate samples in bucket and bring back to lab for further processing.Sample preparation in lab1. Sieve integrated plankton tows through 63&micro;m mesh and record volume of full sample2. Collect in Nalgene bottles and make total volume to 50mL3. Add 8 drops of lugol to fix zooplankton.4. Label bottle with sample date, benthic or pelagic zooplankton, and total volume sieved. Samples can be stored in the fridge until time of countingCounting1. Remove sample from fridge2. Sieve sample with 63 micro meter mesh over lab sink to remove Lugol&rsquo;s solution (which vaporizes under light)3. Suspend sample in water in sieve and flush from the back with squirt bottle into counting tray4. Homogenize sample with forceps or plastic pipette with tip cut off5. Identify (see zooplankton identification guide) using backlit microscope and count with multiple-tally counter. i. Set magnification so that you can see both top and bottom walls of the tray. ii. Change focus depth to check for floating zooplankton that must be counted as well.6. Pipette sample back into Nalgene bottle, add water to 50mL, add 8 drops Lugol&rsquo;s solution, and return to fridgeSubsamplingIf homogenized original sample contains more than 500 individuals in the first line of counting tray, you may subsample under the following procedure.1. Return original sample to Nalgene bottle and add water to 50mL2. Homogenize sample by swirling Nalgene bottle3. Collect 10mL of zooplankton sample with Hensen-Stempel pipette4. Empty contents of Hensen-Stempel pipette into large Bogorov tray5. Homogenize sample in tray with forceps or plastic pipette with tip cut off6. Identify (see zooplankton identification guide) using backlit microscope and count with multiple-tally counter. i. Set magnification so that you can see both top and bottom walls of the tray. ii. Change focus depth to check for floating zooplankton that must be counted, too! 7. Pipette sample back into Nalgene bottle, add water to 50mL, add 8 drops Lugol&rsquo;s solution, and return to fridge Benthic Microcrustacean Counts Field samplingLeave benthic zooplankton sampler for 24h. Benthic sampler consists of 10 inverted jars with funnel traps in metal grid with 4 feet. Set up on bench using feet (on side) to get a uniform height of the collection jars (lip of jar = 5cm above frame). Upon collection, pull sampler STRAIGHT up, remove jars, homogenize in bucket and bring back to lab. Move the boat slightly to avoid placing sampler directly over cored sediment.Sample preparation in lab1. Sieve integrated samples through 63 micrometer mesh and record volume of full sample2. Collect in Nalgene bottles and make total volume to 50mL3. Add 8 drops of lugol to fix zooplankton.4. Label bottle with sample date, benthic or pelagic zooplankton, and total volume sieved. Samples can be stored in the fridge until time of countingCounting1. Remove sample from fridge2. Sieve sample with 63 micrometer mesh over lab sink to remove Lugol&rsquo;s solution (which vaporizes under light)3. Suspend sample in water in sieve and flush from the back with squirt bottle into counting tray4. Homogenize sample with forceps or plastic pipette with tip cut off5. Identify (see zooplankton identification guide) using backlit microscope and count with multiple-tally counter. i. Set magnification so that you can see both top and bottom walls of the tray. ii. Change focus depth to check for floating zooplankton that must be counted, too!6. Pipette sample back into Nalgene bottle, add water to 50mL, add 8 drops Lugol&rsquo;s solution, and return to fridgeSubsamplingIf homogenized original sample contains more than 500 individuals in the first line of counting tray, you may subsample under the following procedure.1. Return original sample to Nalgene bottle and add water to 50mL2. Homogenize sample by swirling Nalgene bottle3. Collect 10mL of zooplankton sample with Hensen-Stempel pipette4. Empty contents of Hensen-Stempel pipette into large Bogorov tray5. Homogenize sample in tray with forceps or plastic pipette with tip cut off6. Identify (see zooplankton identification guide) using backlit microscope and count with multiple-tally counter. i. Set magnification so that you can see both top and bottom walls of the tray. ii. Change focus depth to check for floating zooplankton that must be counted, too! 7. Pipette sample back into Nalgene bottle, add water to 50mL, add 8 drops Lugol&rsquo;s solution, and return to fridge Chironomid Counts (2012, 2013) For first instar chironomids in top 1.5cm of sediment only (5 samples)1. Use sink hose to sieve sediment through 63 micrometer mesh. You may use moderate pressure to break up tubes.2. Back flush sieve contents into small deli container.3. Return label to deli cup (sticking to underside of lid works well).For later instar chironomids in the section 1.5-11.5cm (5 samples)4. Sieve with 125 micrometer mesh in the field.5. Sieve through 125micrometer mesh again in lab to reduce volume of sample.6. Transfer sample to deli container or pitfall counting tray.For all chironomid samples7. Under dissecting scope, pick through sieved contents for midge larvae. You may have to open tubes with forceps in order to check for larvae inside.8. Remove larvae with forceps while counting, and place into a vial containing 70 percent ethanol. Larvae will eventually be sorted into taxonomic groups (see key). You may sort them into taxonomic groups as you pick the larvae, or you can identify the larvae while measuring head capsules if chironomid densities are low (under 50 individuals per taxanomic group).9. For a random sample of up to 50 individuals of each taxonomic group, measure head capsule, see Chironomid size (head capsule width).10. Archive samples from each sampling date together in a single 20mL glass vial with screw cap in 70 percent ethanol and label with sample contents , Chir, sample date, lake ID, station ID, and number of cores. Chironomid Cound (2014) In 2014, the method for sampling chironomid larvae changed starting with the sample on 2014-06-27; the variable &quot;top_bottom&quot; is coded as a 2. In contrast to previous measurements, the top and bottom core samples were combined and then subsampled. Below is the pertinent section of the protocols.Chironomid samples should be counted within 24 hours of collection. This ensures that larvae are as active and easily identified as possible, and also prevents predatory chironomids from consuming other larvae. Samples should be refrigerated upon returning from the field.<strong>For first instar chironomids in top 1.5cm of sediment only (5 samples)</strong>1. Use sink hose to sieve sediment through 63&micro;m mesh. You may use moderate pressure to break up tubes.2. Back flush sieve contents using a water bottle into small deli container.3. Return label to deli cup (sticking to underside of lid works well).<strong>For larger instar chironomids in the section 1.5-11.5cm (5 samples)</strong>4. Sieve with 125&micro;m mesh in the field.5. Sieve through 125&micro;m mesh again in lab to reduce volume of sample and break up tubes.6. Transfer sample to deli container with the appropriate label.<strong>Subsample if necessary</strong>If necessary, subsample with the following protocol.a. Combine top and bottom samples from each core (1-5) in midge sample splitter.b. Homogenize sample thoroughly, collect one half in deli container, and label container with core number and &ldquo;1/2&rdquo;c. If necessary, split the half that remains in the sampler into quarters, and collect each in deli containers labeled with core number, &ldquo;1/4&rdquo;, and replicate 1 or 2d. Store all deli containers in fridge until counted, and save until all counting is complete&quot; Chironomid Size (head capsule width) 1. Obtain picked samples preserved in ethanol and empty onto petri dish.2. Sort larvae by family groups, arranging in same orientation for easy measurment.3. Set magnification to 20, diopter, x 50 times4. Take measurments for up to 50 or more individuals of each taxa. Round to nearest optical micrometer unit.5. Fill out data sheet for number of larvae in each taxa, Chironomid measurements for each taxa, date of sample, station sample was taken from, which core the sample came from, who picked the core, and your name as the measurer.6. Enter data into shared sheetSee &quot;Chironomid Counts&quot; for changes in sampling chironomid larvae in 2014.
Version Number
17

LTREB Chemical and Physical Limnology at Lake Myvatn 2012-current

Abstract
These data are part of a long-term monitoring program at station 33 in the central part of Myvatn that represents the dominant habitat, with benthos consisting of diatomaceous ooze. The program was designed to characterize import benthis and pelagic variables across years as midge populations varied in abundance. Starting in 2012 samples were taken at roughly weekly inervals during June, July, and August, which corresponds to the summer generation of the dominant midge, Tanytarsus gracilentus.
Creator
Dataset ID
287
Date Range
-
Maintenance
Ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
Water Profile1. Take Light, DO, pH, Temp profile every 0.5mUse YSI DO probe, pH meter, and Li Cor light meter. Take the light profile from the sunny side of the boat.2. Take Secchi depthLower Secchi disk slowly until you can never see clear boundaries between white and black quarters, record this distance to the surface of the water as lower Secchi disk observation. Then pull the Secchi up until you can always see clear boundaries between white and black quarters, record this distance to the surface as the upper Secchi observation.Benthic Net Primary Production1. Measure light, temperature, percentDO, DO, and pH at 0.5m intervals at the sampling location.2. Take 10 clean/undisturbed cores. Try to get a uniform distance between the sediment and top of tube, so the cores have the same volume of water. Cover in boat with tarp to exclude light.3. Collect water from the shore of the boat and measure temp, percentDO, and DO. Save in bucket.4. Measure light intensity at 0 (out) and 0.5m depth where the cores will be incubated.5. Set up HOBO light recorder on the incubator.6. For each tube, take initial temp, percentDO, and DO. Before taking DO measurement, move the DO probe up and down three times to ensure no DO gradient (but do not disturb sediment). Add, slowly and without bubbling, 10 to 20mL of water (just the amount needed) to the core from bucket (number 3) to ensure no air space, and replace the stopper. Measure the distance from sediment to bottom of stopper to the nearest 0.5cm (column_depth).7. Place cores 1, 3, 5, and 7 in dark chambers (opaque tubes), so there are 4 dark and 6 light treatments.8. Incubate the cores using the metal structure at saturation light intensity if possible (300 mol per meter squared per second at 0.5m depth) for about 3h.9. Before taking DO measurement, move the DO probe up and down three times to ensure no DO gradient (but do not disturb sediment), and then measure percentDO, DO, and temperature in each core.Light controlsOnce a month (June, July, August), on a sunny day, incubate 10 cores for 3h with different light intensities to determine primary productivity under different light intensities and different temperatures. It would be best to do this the day after routine sampling (i.e., when retrieving the benthic sampler) so that the results can be compared to those from the routine sampling. Different light levels are obtained using white mesh bags around the core tubes.Core 1 and 6, lightCore 2 and 7, 2xCore 3 and 8, 4xCore 4 and 9, 8xCore 5 and 10, darkIMPORTANT: After the incubations, measure light intensity inside a core tube covered for the different treatments. This is done by removing the light meter from the metal holder and placing it facing up in a core using zip ties and a blue stopper at the bottom. Then place treatment bags over the top and measure light when holding the core at the level they reach in the incubator; use the marking on the light meter cord to make sure this is standardized for all measurements. This should be done 8 times total (each bag plus twice without bags).Light saturationOnce a month in the summer of 2013, we conducted sediment core incubations with varying amounts of shade cloth applied to the cores. Sediment cores received 0, 2, 4, 8, or 15 layers of shade cloth, with two cores in each treatment. All cores were then incubated in the lake over the same 3hr period at a depth of 0.5m.Sediment Dry Weight and Weight on Combustion1. Remove 0.75cm of sediment from a core into a plastic deli container. This should be done on a fresh core. This is the same sample that is used for chl analysis.2. Subsample 5 to 10mL sediment solution and place in a pre-weighed tin tray in oven at 60C for at least 12 hours. When dry, weigh for dry weight.In 2014, the method for sampling benthic chlorophyll changed. Sediment Dry Weight measurements were taken from these samples as well. Below is the pertinent section from the methods protocols. Processing after the collection of the sample was not changed.Take sediment samples from the 5 cores collected for sediment characteristics. Take 4 syringes of sediment with 10mL syringe (15.3 mm diameter). Take 4-5cm of sediment. Then, remove bottom 2cm and place top 2cm in the film canister.3. Combust at 550C for 4.5 hours. Weigh tray.4. If not analyzing combusted samples immediately, place in drying oven before weighing.
Version Number
15

River Nutrient Uptake and Transport at North Temperate Lakes LTER (2005-2011)

Abstract
These data were collected by Stephen Michael Powers and collaborators for his Ph.d. research, documented in his dissertation: River Nutrient Uptake and Transport Across Extremes in Channel Form and Drainage Characteristics. A major goal of this research was to better understand how ecosystem form and landscape setting dictate aquatic biogeochemical functioning and elemental transport through rivers. To achieve this goal, major and minor ions were measured in both northern and southern Wisconsin streams located in a variety of land use settings. In total, 27 different streams were sampled at 104 different stations (multiple stations per system) from both groundwater and surface water sources. Organic and inorganic carbon and nitrogen pools were also measured in northern and southern Wisconsin streams. The streams that were sampled in northern Wisconsin flow through wetland ecosystems. In sampling such streams, the goal was to better understand how wetland ecosystems influence river nutrient deliveries. There is a large amount of stream chemistry data for Big Spring Creek, WI; where the influence of a small reservoir on solute transportation and transformation was studied in an agricultural watershed. All stream chemistry data is incorporated in a single data file, Water Chemistry 2005-2011. While the data is not included in the dissertation, a sediment core study was also done in the small reservoir and channel of Big Spring (BS) Creek, WI. The results of this study are featured in three data tables: BS Creek Sediment Core Analysis, BS Creek Sediment Core Chemistry, and BS Creek Longitudinal Profile. Finally, two data tables list the geospatial information of sampling sites for stream chemistry and sediment coring in Big Spring Creek. Documentation: Powers, S.M., 2012. River nutrient uptake and transport across extremes in channel form and drainage characteristics. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. The University of Wisconsin - Madison, United States -- Wisconsin, p. 140.
Dataset ID
281
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
I. Stream chemistry sample collection methods: core-sediment core was taken from the benthic zone of the streamgeopump-geopump used to pump stream water into collection bottlegrab-collection bottle filled with stream water by hand and filtered in the fieldgrabfilter- stream water collected by hand and filtered in field. Unfiltered and filtered samples placed in separate collection bottles.isco- sample collected by use of an ISCO automated samplerpoint- sampled collected by method outlined in patent US8337121sedimentgrab- sediment sample taken in field by hand and placed in collection bottlesyringe- sample collected from stream by syringe and placed in collection bottlesyringe_filter- sample collected from stream by syringe filter. Unfiltered and filtered samples placed in separate collection bottles. II. Stream chemistry analytical methods: All water samples were kept on ice and in the dark following collection, then were either acidified (TN/TP, TDN/TDP) or frozen until analysis (all other analytes).no32_2- This is NO<sub>3-</sub>N which is operationally defined as nitrate nitrogen + nitrite nitrogen. Determined by flow injection analysis on Astoria Pacific Instruments Autoanalyzer (APIA).nh4_n, tn1, tp1, tdn, tdp- All analytes measured by flow injection analysis on Astoria Pacific Instruments Autoanalyzer (APIA).srp- measured colorometrically using the molybdate blue method [APHA 1995] and a Beckman spectrophotometer.doc- measured using a Shimadzu carbon analyzer.doc_qual- the goal in doing this analysis is to determine the source of dissolved organic carbon (doc) measured in a particular riverine ecosystem. This was achieved by UV absorbance which provides an estimate of the aromaticity of the doc in a sample, and by extension, the potential source of the doc.cl, no2, no3, br, and so4- all measured by ion chromatography. See http://www.nemi.gov; method number 4110C. Detection limits for method number 4110C: cl-20&micro;g/l, no2-15&micro;g/l, no3-17&micro;g/l, br-75&micro;g/l, and so4-75&micro;g/l.ysi_cond, do, ph_field, wtemp- all measured by use of a standard YSI meter.tss- measured by standard methods. A thoroughly mixed sample is filtered and dried at 103-105 degreesCelcius. The obtained residue represents the amount of solids suspended in the sample solution. See http://www.nemi.giv; method number D5907.tot_om- measured by standard methods. The residue obtained from the tss procedure is ignited at 550 degreesCelcius and weighed, the difference in weight representing total volatile solids. Total volatile solids represents the portion of the residue that is composed of organic molecules. See http://www.nemi.gov; method number 160.4.turbid- measured by use of a nephelometer. III. Big Spring Sediment Coring Methods A. Field Methods- collecting sediment coresSediment core samples taken with WDNR piston core samplerB. Sediment Analysis- HydrometerDocumentation: Robertson, G.P., Coleman, D.C., Bledsoe, C.S. and Sollins, P., 1999. Standard Soil Methods for Long-Term Ecological Research. Oxford University Press, New York, 462 pp.Hydrometer Analysis- procedure used to determine percent clay:<p style="margin-left:.25in;">1. Dry the sample in a pre-weighed aluminum pan for at least 24 hr at 105 C. Make sure sample is completely dry before weighing.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">2. Weigh the dried sample, then ash for at least 8 hr at 550 C. Make sure to break up any large clumps before ashing.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">3. Weigh the ashed sample, then crush any aggregates with a pestal. Mix sample thoroughly.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">4. Transfer 40g, plus or minus one gram, of the sample into a 500mL wide mouth bottle<p style="margin-left:.25in;">5. Add 10g of sodium hexametaphosphate to the bottle.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">6. Add approx 200mL of deionized water to bottle. Shake vigorously with hand.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">7. Stir samples on shaker table for at least 8 hr at speed 40. Putting them in a box and fastening with bungee cords works best.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">8. Transfer sample to 1L cylinder, making sure to get all of sample out of bottle. Fill cylinder with deionized water up to the 1L mark.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">9. Prepare a blank cylinder by adding 10g of sodium hexametaphosphate and filling to 1L.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">10. Allow all cylinders to equilibrate to room temperature ( approx 30 min).<p style="margin-left:.25in;">11. Starting with the blank cylinder, put stopper into cylinder and shake end-over-end for approx 5 min. Rinse stopper. Repeat this step for all cylinders, rinsing stopper between cylinders.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">12. Record the time that you stopped shaking each cylinder.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">13. At 1.5 hr from time of shaking, record temperature and hydrometer level of the blank cylinder. Then record the 1.5 hr hydrometer level for each successive cylinder.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">14. At 24 hr from time of shaking, record temperature and hydrometer level of the blank cylinder. Then record the 24 hr hydrometer level for each successive cylinder. Sieve Analysis- procedure used to determine quantity of sand and silt<p style="margin-left:.25in;">1. After hydrometer analysis, pour the entire sample into the .063mm sieve. Rinse the sample thoroughly until all the clay is out. Try to break up any clay clumps you see.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">2. Transfer the sample to a pre-weighed and labeled aluminum pan. You will probably need to backwash the sieve to get the entire sample out. You can use a syringe to pull water from the pan if it gets too full. Dry the sample for 48 hours at 50-60C.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">3. Before transferring the dried sample to the sieves, make sure you pre-weigh the sieves and put their weight on the data sheet. You will need to do this before every sample as you might not get all the sample out of the sieves from the previous sample. Stack the sieves in the following order, top to bottom : 4mm, 2mm, 1mm, 0.5mm, 0.25mm, 0.125mm, 0.063mm, and pan. Pour the sample into the top sieve. Place the lid on, located on sieve shaker, and put the stack of sieves into the sieve shaker. Fasten the tie downs. Set shaker for 3 minutes. <p style="margin-left:.25in;">4. Remove stack of sieves from shaker. It&rsquo;s ok to leave the pan behind temporarily as it might be tight. Weigh each sieve and record the weight in the data sheet. If you see any clay clumps, break them up with your fingers and re-shake the stack a little, using hands is okay.<p style="margin-left:.25in;">5. Dump the sample out in the trash and clean the sieve with the brush. At the end of the day it might be necessary to backwash the sieves with water and dry overnight in the oven. <p style="margin-left:.25in;"> Calculations:1. percent clay was determined by the hydrometer analysis- P1.5, P24, X1.5, X24, and m are the variables that were calculated to determine percent clay by the hydrometer analysis.P1.5= ((sample hydrometer reading at 1.5 hours- blank hydrometer reading at 1.5 hours)/ (sample weight)) multiplied by 100.P24= ((sample hydrometer reading at 24 hours- blank hydrometer reading at 24 hours)/ (sample weight)) multiplied by 100X1.5= 1000*(.00019*(-.164* (sample hydrometer reading at 1.5 hours)+16.3)<sup>2</sup> *8100X24=1000*(.00019*(-.164* (sample hydrometer reading at 24 hours)+16.3)<sup>2</sup> *8100m= (P1.5-P24)/(ln(X1.5/X24))percent clay = m * ln(2/X24)) + P24clay (grams) = total weight * ( percent clay/ 100)2. percent Sand and percent Silt were determined based on the results of the sieve analysis which determined the grams of sand and silt.percent sand= total weight * (percent sand/ 100)percent silt= total weight * (percent silt/ 100)3. Othersorganic matter (grams) was calculated in this analysis as dry weight (grams) &ndash; ashed weight (grams)percwnt organic matter was calculated as ((organic matter (grams))/(total dry weight (grams)) multiplied by 100 C. Sediment Chemical Analysis1. SRP/ NaOH-PChemical analysis was done according to the protocol outlined in Pionke and Kunishi (1992). Each sample was first centrifuged and separated into aqueous and sediment fractions. The sediment fraction was then dried. The aqueous fraction was analyzed for soluble reactive phosphorus (srp) by automated colorimetry Nemi Method Number 365.4; see http://www.nemi.gov. NaOH P was then determined by NaOH extractions as described in Pionke and Kunishi (1992). Documentation: Pionke HB, Kunishi HM (1992) Phosphorus status and content of suspended sediment in a Pennsylvania watershed. Soil Sci 153:452&ndash;462.2. NH4 / KCl-NH4 The exact procedure that was used to analyze samples for ammonium is unknown. However, it is known that a KCl extraction was used. The KCl-NH4 was calculated as the concentration of ammonium in milliGramsPerLiter divided by the sediment weight in grams. 3. NO3 / KCl-NO3The exact procedure that was used to analyze samples for nitrate is also unknown. Again, it is known that a KCL extraction was used. The KCl-NO3 was calculated as the concentration of nitrate in milliGramsPerLiter divided by the sediment weight in grams.Note: The same sediment sample was used to measure ammonium and nitrate IV. Big Spring Creek Longitudinal Profile A standard longitudinal stream profile was conducted at Big Spring Creek, WI (wbic=176400) on unknown date(s). It is speculated that the profile was done during the summer of 2005, during which the rest of the data for Big Spring Creek was collected. Measurements for the profile began at the Big Spring Dam site (43.67035,-89.64225), a dam which was subsequently removed. The first (x_dist, y_dist) of (2.296, 5.57) corresponds to the location where the stream crosses Golden Court Road, whereas the second coordinate pair of (-2.615, -36.303) corresponds to the point below the previous Big Spring Creek Dam site. The third (x_dist, y_dist) of (-9.472, 7.681) corresponds to the top of the dam gates and is assigned a distance=0 as it is the starting point.
Version Number
23

North Temperate Lakes LTER: Sediment Deposition - Trout Lake Area 1986 - current

Abstract
Settling particulate matter is collected using sediment traps deployed in the water column below the epilimnion. Collections are made at one or two stations in Trout, Sparkling and Crystal lakes. Traps are deployed during the ice-free period for three-week intervals. Mass deposition rates are calculated from the dry-weight of material collected. Material is also analyzed for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, silica, and selected other constituents. Sampling Frequency: every three weeks during ice-free season Number of sites: 3
Dataset ID
40
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
We measure particulate deposition in Trout, Sparkling, and Crystal lakes using cylindrical sediment traps suspended in the hypolimnion, the catch bottles poisoned with sodium azide. Duplicate traps are collected monthly during the open water period. The collected sediment is separated into two size fractions (210u), and dried and weighed to calculate the rate of sediment deposition to the lake, as mgorm2orday. Protocol Log: 1986 -- began sampling sediment deposition, using one trap per lake. Analysis is done in Madison. 1986-1991 -- sediment was analyzed for carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. 1988 -- began deployment of two traps per lake. 1996 -- began to measure mass of particles in the trap water above the collection bottle in addition to the sediment in the bottle. 2000 to present -- analysis is done at Trout Lake Station.
Short Name
NTLSE01
Version Number
25
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