US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, USA, (Non-Dreissenid) Benthic Macroinvertebrate Abundance, Biomass, and Community Composition 2016-2018

Abstract
We sampled the zoobenthos (macroinvertebrates of the benthos) of Lake Mendota from 2016-2018 to track impacts of invasive zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) which were discovered in Lake Mendota in 2015 and grew exponentially to densities greater than 10,000 m-2 in shallow, rocky habitat by 2018. The data presented here exclude all zebra mussels, which are archived in a separate datset. We sampled along three transects inherited from Karatayev et al. (2013) at five different depths (1, 3, 5, 8, and 10 m) twice a summer (June and August) from 2016-2018. These data also contain some samples opportunistically taken from deeper depths along these transects that do not follow the routine sampling structure. A pared-down version of this routine sampling continued from 2019 onward but is not included here. This dataset complements zebra mussel and phytobenthos data collected according to the same routine sampling structure, for which data is also archived with EDI.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
394
Data Sources
Date Range
-
Methods
We sampled non-zebra mussel benthic macroinvertebrates twice a summer (early June and late August) from 2016-2018 at five depths (1, 3, 5, 8, and 10m) along each of three transects (A-C) running perpendicular to the shore of Lake Mendota. We collected triplicate samples from each site using a 0.625 m-2 circular quadrat and an airlift method with a modified SCUBA tank suction device called an AquaVac. Air was released through a PVC pipe, creating backpressure to lift sediment, which was captured in a 500μm mesh bag and transported in a resealable plastic bag. We chose an airlift method because of difficulty closing Eckman samplers on the hard substrates of rock and zebra mussel druses. Occasionally additional samples were taken with an Eckman, often at deeper depths, for comparing to the main transects and depths sampled with AquaVac or to collect additional material for isotope analysis.<br/>We sampled non-zebra mussel benthic macroinvertebrates twice a summer (early June and late August) from 2016-2018 at five depths (1, 3, 5, 8, and 10m) along each of three transects (A-C) running perpendicular to the shore of Lake Mendota. We collected triplicate samples from each site using a 0.625 m-2 circular quadrat and an airlift method with a modified SCUBA tank suction device called an AquaVac. Air was released through a PVC pipe, creating backpressure to lift sediment, which was captured in a 500μm mesh bag and transported in a resealable plastic bag. We chose an airlift method because of difficulty closing Eckman samplers on the hard substrates of rock and zebra mussel druses. Occasionally additional samples were taken with an Eckman, often at deeper depths, for comparing to the main transects and depths sampled with AquaVac or to collect additional material for isotope analysis.<br/>
Version Number
1

Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, USA, Zebra Mussel Density and Biomass 2016-2018

Abstract
We sampled adult zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in the benthos of Lake Mendota from 2016-2018 to track the growth of the population following its initial detection in fall 2015. We sampled along three transects inherited from Karatayev et al. (2013) at five different depths (1, 3, 5, 8, and 10 m) twice a summer (June and August) from 2016-2018. Because suitable zebra mussel substrate was limited at these sites, we also selected five 1 m depth, rocky sites (optimal zebra mussel sites) to track density and biomass where colonization was most intense. A pared-down version of this routine sampling continued from 2019 onward but is not included here. This dataset complements zoobenthos and phytobenthos data collected according to the same routine sampling structure, as well as larval zebra mussel (veliger) sampling for which data is also archived with EDI. Biomass data are modeled from lengths of up to 100 individuals that were measured in each sample. Those lengths were fed into Lake Mendota-specific length-to-weight power law equations parameterized by body size measurements (length, width, live weight, wet weight, dry weight, shell weight, shell-free weight, and ash-free dry weight) of 99 mussels collected at different sites across Lake Mendota in 2018.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
393
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Methods
We sampled adult zebra mussels twice a summer (early June and late August) from 2016-2018 at five depths (1, 3, 5, 8, and 10m) along each of three transects running perpendicular to shore (A-C). Dominant substrates at transect A were rock at 1 m depth, sand at 3 and 5 m, and muck at 8 and 10 m. At transects B and C, sand was the dominant substrate at 1 and 3 m depth and muck was dominant at 5, 8, and 10m. Significant macrophyte growth was generally absent at all sites in June and occurred mostly at 1, 3, and 5 m sites only at transects A and C. Because most sites lacked hard substrate (rocks, logs, etc.) suitable for zebra mussel colonization, we also sampled five additional rocky 1m depth sites to represent prime zebra mussel habitat.<br/>We sampled adult zebra mussels twice a summer (early June and late August) from 2016-2018 at five depths (1, 3, 5, 8, and 10m) along each of three transects running perpendicular to shore (A-C). Dominant substrates at transect A were rock at 1 m depth, sand at 3 and 5 m, and muck at 8 and 10 m. At transects B and C, sand was the dominant substrate at 1 and 3 m depth and muck was dominant at 5, 8, and 10m. Significant macrophyte growth was generally absent at all sites in June and occurred mostly at 1, 3, and 5 m sites only at transects A and C. Because most sites lacked hard substrate (rocks, logs, etc.) suitable for zebra mussel colonization, we also sampled five additional rocky 1m depth sites to represent prime zebra mussel habitat.<br/>We sampled adult zebra mussels twice a summer (early June and late August) from 2016-2018 at five depths (1, 3, 5, 8, and 10m) along each of three transects running perpendicular to shore (A-C). Dominant substrates at transect A were rock at 1 m depth, sand at 3 and 5 m, and muck at 8 and 10 m. At transects B and C, sand was the dominant substrate at 1 and 3 m depth and muck was dominant at 5, 8, and 10m. Significant macrophyte growth was generally absent at all sites in June and occurred mostly at 1, 3, and 5 m sites only at transects A and C. Because most sites lacked hard substrate (rocks, logs, etc.) suitable for zebra mussel colonization, we also sampled five additional rocky 1m depth sites to represent prime zebra mussel habitat.
Version Number
1

Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, USA, Zebra Mussel Veliger Water Column Density 2016-2019

Abstract
We sampled veliger (larval stage) zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from 2016-2019.
Zebra mussels are invasive in Lake Mendota and were first detected in November 2015. Samples
were taken at three different sites on Lake Mendota from June to August in 2016, and from
June to November in 2018-2019, using a 0.5 m diameter, 64 micrometer mesh size plankton net
for an 8 m depth tow. This dataset complements adult zebra mussel, zoobenthos, and
phytobenthos data collected during the same time period, for which data is also archived
with EDI.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
392
Data Sources
Date Range
-
Methods
We sampled larval zebra mussels (veligers) using a 64 microm mesh, 0.5 m diameter
plankton net and stored them in 80% ethanol in 200 mL containers at 25degree C for 0-12
weeks until processing. At each site we performed triplicate 8 m depth plankton tows by
pulling a net from 2 m above the lake bottom at the 10 m depth sites of transects A-C
developed for adult zebra mussel collection. We collected samples approximately every 14
days from June to August in 2016, and June to November in 2017-2019. During fall
sampling, poor weather conditions occasionally limited the number of sites or replicates
collected. We also sampled veligers biweekly in 2019 but reduced sampling to one
replicate per site and only sampled at one site after September. Because veligers are
small and difficult to see, enumeration was time consuming. <br/>We sampled larval zebra mussels (veligers) using a 64 microm mesh, 0.5 m diameter
plankton net and stored them in 80% ethanol in 200 mL containers at 25degree C for 0-12
weeks until processing. At each site we performed triplicate 8 m depth plankton tows by
pulling a net from 2 m above the lake bottom at the 10 m depth sites of transects A-C
developed for adult zebra mussel collection. We collected samples approximately every 14
days from June to August in 2016, and June to November in 2017-2019. During fall
sampling, poor weather conditions occasionally limited the number of sites or replicates
collected. We also sampled veligers biweekly in 2019 but reduced sampling to one
replicate per site and only sampled at one site after September. Because veligers are
small and difficult to see, enumeration was time consuming. <br/>We sampled larval zebra mussels (veligers) using a 64 microm mesh, 0.5 m diameter
plankton net and stored them in 80% ethanol in 200 mL containers at 25degree C for 0-12
weeks until processing. At each site we performed triplicate 8 m depth plankton tows by
pulling a net from 2 m above the lake bottom at the 10 m depth sites of transects A-C
developed for adult zebra mussel collection. We collected samples approximately every 14
days from June to August in 2016, and June to November in 2017-2019. During fall
sampling, poor weather conditions occasionally limited the number of sites or replicates
collected. We also sampled veligers biweekly in 2019 but reduced sampling to one
replicate per site and only sampled at one site after September. Because veligers are
small and difficult to see, enumeration was time consuming.
Version Number
1

Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, USA, Phytobenthos Abundance and Community Composition 2016-2018

Abstract
We sampled the phytobenthos (epibenthic periphyton) of Lake Mendota from 2016-2018 to track impacts of invasive zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) which were discovered in Lake Mendota in 2015 and grew exponentially to densities greater than 10,000 m-2 in shallow, rocky habitat by 2018. We sampled along three transects inherited from Karatayev et al. (2013) at five different depths (1, 3, 5, 8, and 10 m) twice a summer (June and August) from 2016-2018. A pared-down version of this routine sampling continued from 2019 onward but is not included here. This dataset complements zebra mussel and zoobenthos data collected according to the same routine sampling structure, for which data is also archived with EDI.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
391
Data Sources
Date Range
-
Methods
We sampled phytobenthos twice a summer (early June and late August) from 2016-2018 at five depths (1, 3, 5, 8, and 10m) along three transects running perpendicular to shore (A-C, Fig. 1). We collected triplicate samples at each site. SCUBA divers retrieved one rock at rock-dominated sites, or a petri dish full of undisturbed sediment at sand- and muck-dominated sites, and transported samples to the surface in a resealable plastic bag. In the laboratory, we scrubbed phytobenthos from rocks with a brush or emptied petri dish contents into a beaker. We separated phytobenthos from inorganic material by adding ~1 L of deionized water, homogenizing the sample, allowing settlement of inorganic material, and decanting the suspended phytobenthos. We kept samples dark and refrigerated until completely processed to prevent cell division after collection. <br/>We sampled phytobenthos twice a summer (early June and late August) from 2016-2018 at five depths (1, 3, 5, 8, and 10m) along three transects running perpendicular to shore (A-C, Fig. 1). We collected triplicate samples at each site. SCUBA divers retrieved one rock at rock-dominated sites, or a petri dish full of undisturbed sediment at sand- and muck-dominated sites, and transported samples to the surface in a resealable plastic bag. In the laboratory, we scrubbed phytobenthos from rocks with a brush or emptied petri dish contents into a beaker. We separated phytobenthos from inorganic material by adding ~1 L of deionized water, homogenizing the sample, allowing settlement of inorganic material, and decanting the suspended phytobenthos. We kept samples dark and refrigerated until completely processed to prevent cell division after collection.
Version Number
1

Madison community science field campaign to assess abundance and distribution of invasive jumping worms.

Abstract
Asian pheretimoid earthworms of the genera Amynthas and Metaphire
(jumping worms) are leading a new wave of co-invasion into
Northeastern and Midwestern states, with potential consequences for
native organisms and ecosystem processes. However, little is known
about their distribution, abundance, and habitat preferences in urban
landscapes – areas which likely influence range expansion via
human-driven spread. We led a participatory field campaign to assess
jumping worm distribution and abundance in Madison, Wisconsin in
September of 2017. By compressing 250 person-hours of sampling effort
into a single day, we quantified presence and abundance of three
jumping worm species across different land-cover types (forest,
grassland, open space, residential lawns and gardens), finding that
urban green spaces differed in invasibility. We show that community
science can be powerful for researching invasive species while
engaging the public in conservation. This approach was particularly
effective here, where broad spatial sampling was required within a
short temporal window.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
387
Date Range
LTER Keywords
Methods
At each study site, teams visually surveyed the area for signs of
jumping worm presence, including live organisms or the characteristic
granular soil signature indicative of their activity. For example, in
a residential yard, participants would walk through the space for
approximately 10 minutes, brushing aside leaf litter and checking
underneath planters or landscaping cloth (where the species are
anecdotally known to congregate) for live earthworms, and examining
garden soil for structural characteristics. Next, earthworms were
censused at three haphazard locations using a 30cm x 30cm quadrat and
a standard mustard extraction (Lawrence and Bowers 2002). Any
suspected jumping worms found were collected and returned to the
laboratory for visual identification following the field campaign. We
identified jumping worms to species (A. tokioensis, A. agrestis, M.
hilgendorfi) when possible (Chang et al. 2016a). Participants also
recorded the presence/absence of any additional (European) earthworm
species observed during sampling.
<br/>
NTL Themes
Version Number
1

WSC - The Influence of Legacy P on Lake Water Quality

Abstract
Using a suite of numerical models, we investigated the influence of legacy P on water quality in the Yahara Watershed of southern Wisconsin, USA. The suite included Agro-IBIS, a terrestrial ecosystem model; THMB, a hydrologic and nutrient routing model; and the Yahara Water Quality Model which estimates water quality indicators in the Yahara chain of lakes. Using five alternative scenarios of antecedent P storage (legacy P) in soils and channels under historical climate conditions, we simulated outcomes of P yield from the landscape, lake P loading, and three lake water quality indicators. Data and code may also be found in https://github.com/SRCarpen/Yahara2070LakeModel_Fits2data.git
Core Areas
Dataset ID
384
Date Range
-
Methods
We developed a watershed modeling framework that can simulate an array of ecosystem services, including land-to-lake flows of water, sediment, and nutrients, and surface water quality (Figure 1). The framework includes process-based representation of natural and managed ecosystems (Agro- IBIS), hydrologic routing of water, sediment, and nutrients through the surface hydrologic network (THMB), and prediction of Secchi disk depth (a measure of lake transparency), summertime lake total phosphorus (TP) concentration, and the probability of hypereutrophy in each lake (Yahara Water Quality Model).
for detailed description of modeling approach please see:
Motew, M., Chen, X., Booth, E.G. et al. The Influence of Legacy P on Lake Water Quality in a Midwestern Agricultural Watershed. Ecosystems 20, 1468–1482 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-017-0125-0
Version Number
1

Spatially Distributed Lake Mendota EXO Multi-Parameter Sonde Measurements Summer 2019

Abstract
This data was collected over 9 sampling trips from June to August 2019. 35 grid boxes were generated over Lake Mendota. Before each sampling effort, sample point locations were randomized within each grid box. Surface measurements were taken with an EXO multi-parameter sonde at the 35 locations throughout Lake Mendota during each sampling trip. Measurements include temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll, phycocyanin, turbidity, dissolved organic material, ODO, pH, and pressure.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
388
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Methods
Conducted weekly data sampling (9 boat trips in June-August 2019) using an EXO multi-parameter sonde to collect temperature, conductivity, chlorophyll (ug/L), phycocyanin (ug/L), turbidity, dissolved organic material, ODO, pH, and pressure at 35 locations based on GPS guided stratified random sampling. 35 grid boxes were generated over Lake Mendota using qGIS. Point locations within each grid box were randomized before each sampling effort. At each point, variables were recorded continuously with the EXO sonde for a two-minute period. Continuous data was overaged over the two-minute period for each sample point.
Publication Date
Version Number
1

North Temperate Lakes LTER Regional Survey water temperature DO 2015 - current

Abstract
The Northern Highlands Lake District (NHLD) is one of the few regions in the world with periodic comprehensive water chemistry data from hundreds of lakes spanning almost a century. Birge and Juday directed the first comprehensive assessment of water chemistry in the NHLD, sampling more than 600 lakes in the 1920s and 30s. These surveys have been repeated by various agencies and we now have data from the 1920s (UW), 1960s (WDNR), 1970s (EPA), 1980s (EPA), 1990s (EPA), and 2000s (NTL). The 28 lakes sampled as part of the Regional Lake Survey have been sampled by at least four of these regional surveys including the 1920s Birge and Juday sampling efforts. These 28 lakes were selected to represent a gradient of landscape position and shoreline development, both of which are important factors influencing social and ecological dynamics of lakes in the NHLD. This long-term regional dataset will lead to a greater understanding of whether and how large-scale drivers such as climate change and variability, lakeshore residential development, introductions of invasive species, or forest management have altered regional water chemistry.
Water temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles were taken on sampling days.
Contact
Dataset ID
382
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Methods
water temperature and dissolved oxygen were measured at 1 meter intervals with a opto sonde
Version Number
1

North Temperate Lakes LTER Regional Survey Zooplankton 2015 - current

Abstract
The Northern Highlands Lake District (NHLD) is one of the few regions in the world with periodic comprehensive water chemistry data from hundreds of lakes spanning almost a century. Birge and Juday directed the first comprehensive assessment of water chemistry in the NHLD, sampling more than 600 lakes in the 1920s and 30s. These surveys have been repeated by various agencies and we now have data from the 1920s (UW), 1960s (WDNR), 1970s (EPA), 1980s (EPA), 1990s (EPA), and 2000s (NTL). The 28 lakes sampled as part of the Regional Lake Survey have been sampled by at least four of these regional surveys including the 1920s Birge and Juday sampling efforts. These 28 lakes were selected to represent a gradient of landscape position and shoreline development, both of which are important factors influencing social and ecological dynamics of lakes in the NHLD. This long-term regional dataset will lead to a greater understanding of whether and how large-scale drivers such as climate change and variability, lakeshore residential development, introductions of invasive species, or forest management have altered regional water chemistry. Zooplankton samples were taken at approximately the deepest part of each lake, via a vertical tow with a Wisconsin net. Count of individuals and presence absence data for all lakes in study region are provided here.
Contact
Core Areas
Dataset ID
381
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Methods
Each zooplankton sample was taken at approximately the deepest part of each lake, via a vertical tow with a Wisconsin net (20cm diameter mouth, 80µ mesh) lowered to 1 meter above the bottom of a lake and then pulled up slowly at a rate of about 3 seconds per meter. Contents of the net were preserved in 4-oz jars with 95% ethanol. One sample was taken from each lake. Samples were collected by the Regional Lakes summer sampling crew in June 2015.
Version Number
1

North Temperate Lakes LTER Regional Survey Water Chemistry 2015 - current

Abstract
The Northern Highlands Lake District (NHLD) is one of the few regions in the world with periodic comprehensive water chemistry data from hundreds of lakes spanning almost a century. Birge and Juday directed the first comprehensive assessment of water chemistry in the NHLD, sampling more than 600 lakes in the 1920s and 30s. These surveys have been repeated by various agencies and we now have data from the 1920s (UW), 1960s (WDNR), 1970s (EPA), 1980s (EPA), 1990s (EPA), and 2000s (NTL). The 28 lakes sampled as part of the Regional Lake Survey have been sampled by at least four of these regional surveys including the 1920s Birge and Juday sampling efforts. These 28 lakes were selected to represent a gradient of landscape position and shoreline development, both of which are important factors influencing social and ecological dynamics of lakes in the NHLD. This long-term regional dataset will lead to a greater understanding of whether and how large-scale drivers such as climate change and variability, lakeshore residential development, introductions of invasive species, or forest management have altered regional water chemistry. The regional lakes survey in 2015 followed the standard LTER protocol for standard water chemistry and biology. Samples were taken as close to solar noon as possible. Seven lakes had replicates performed, which were chosen at random.
Contact
Dataset ID
380
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Methods
Inorganic and organic carbon
Inorganic carbon is analyzed by phosphoric acid addition on a Shimadzu TOC-V-csh Total Organic Carbon Analyzer.
Organic carbon is analyzed by combustion, on a Shimadzu TOC-V-csh Total Organic Carbon Analyzer.
Version Number
2
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