US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological Data - Crystal Lake 2011 - 2014

Abstract
Data from the instrumented buoy on Crystal Lake include micrometeorological parameters, relative humidity, air temperature, wind velocity, wind driection (2 m height),and water temperatures, pH, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen measured by a sonde that is moving through the water column.
Contact
Dataset ID
302
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
Data from the instrumented buoy on Crystal Lake include micrometeorological parameters, relative humidity, air temperature, wind velocity, wind direction (2 m height),and water temperatures, pH, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen measured by a sonde that is moving through the water column. Sampling Frequency: one minute;
Version Number
19

Fluxes project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Spatial Metabolism Study 2007

Abstract
Data from a lake spatial metabolism study by Matthew C. Van de Bogert for his Phd project, "Aquatic ecosystem carbon cycling: From individual lakes to the landscape."; The goal of this study was to capture the spatial heterogeneity of within-lake processes in effort to make robust estimates of daily metabolism metrics such as gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R), and net ecosystem production (NEP). In pursuing this goal, multiple sondes were placed at different locations and depths within two stratified Northern Temperate Lakes, Sparkling Lake (n=35 sondes) and Peter Lake (n=27 sondes), located in the Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, respectively.Dissolved oxygen and temperature measurements were made every 10 minutes over a 10 day period for each lake in July and August of 2007. Dissolved oxygen measurements were corrected for drift. In addition, conductivity, temperature compensated specific conductivity, pH, and oxidation reduction potential were measured by a subset of sondes in each lake. Two data tables list the spatial information regarding sonde placement in each lake, and a single data table lists information about the sondes (manufacturer, model, serial number etc.). Documentation :Van de Bogert, M.C., 2011. Aquatic ecosystem carbon cycling: From individual lakes to the landscape. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. The University of Wisconsin - Madison, United States -- Wisconsin, p. 156. Also see Van de Bogert, M.C., Bade, D.L., Carpenter, S.R., Cole, J.J., Pace, M.L., Hanson, P.C., Langman, O.C., 2012. Spatial heterogeneity strongly affects estimates of ecosystem metabolism in two north temperate lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 57, 1689-1700.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
285
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
Data were collected from two lakes, Sparkling Lake (46.008, -89.701) and Peter Lake (46.253, -89.504), both located in the northern highlands Lake District of Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan over a 10 day period on each lake in July and August of 2007. Refer to Van de Bogert et al. 2011 for limnological characteristics of the study lakes.Measurements of dissolved oxygen and temperature were made every 10 minutes using multiple sondes dispersed horizontally throughout the mixed-layer in the two lakes (n=35 sondes for Sparkling Lake and n=27 sondes for Peter Lake). Dissolved oxygen measurements were corrected for drift.Conductivity, temperature compensated specific conductivity, pH, and oxidation reduction potential were also measured by a subset of sensors in each lake. Of the 35 sondes in Sparkling Lake, 31 were from YSI Incorporated: 15 of model 600XLM, 14 of model 6920, and 2 of model 6600). The remaining sondes placed in Sparkling Lake were 4 D-Opto sensors, Zebra-Tech, LTD. In Peter Lake, 14 YSI model 6920 and 13 YSI model 600XLM sondes were used.Sampling locations were stratified randomly so that a variety of water depths were represented, however, a higher density of sensors were placed in the littoral rather than pelagic zone. See Van de Bogert et al. 2012 for the thermal (stratification) profile of Sparkling Lake and Peter Lake during the period of observation, and for details on how locations were classified as littoral or pelagic. In Sparkling Lake, 11 sensors were placed within the shallowest zone, 12 in the off-shore littoral, and 6 in each of the remaining two zones, for a total of 23 littoral and 12 pelagic sensors. Similarly, 15 sensors were placed in the two littoral zones, and 12 sensors in the pelagic zone.Sensors were randomly assigned locations within each of the zones using rasterized bathymetric maps of the lakes and a random number generator in Matlab. Within each lake, one pelagic sensor was placed at the deep hole which is used for routine-long term sampling.Note that in Sparkling Lake this corresponds to the location of the long-term monitoring buoy. After locations were determined, sensors were randomly assigned to each location with the exception of the four D-Opto sensor is Sparkling Lake, which are a part of larger monitoring buoys used in the NTL-LTER program. One of these was located near the deep hole of the lake while the other three were assigned to random locations along the north shore, south shore and pelagic regions of the lake. Documentation: Van de Bogert, M.C., Bade, D.L., Carpenter, S.R., Cole, J.J., Pace, M.L., Hanson, P.C., Langman, O.C., 2012. Spatial heterogeneity strongly affects estimates of ecosystem metabolism in two north temperate lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 57, 1689-1700.
Version Number
17

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Water Temperature Data - Sparkling Lake Raft 1989 - current

Abstract
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature from depths ranging from the surface to 18m at intervals from 0.5 to 3m throughout the water column. The surface temperature sensors are attached to floats so that they are as close to the surface as feasible. The raft on Sparkling Lake is also equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity (1, 2, and 3 m heights), and water temperatures are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min. Number of sites: 1
Dataset ID
5
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Short Name
NTLEV02
Version Number
22

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Sparkling Lake Raft 1989 - current

Abstract
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a dissolved oxygen and CO2 sensors, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity ( at 1, 2, and 3 m heights; but beginning in 2008, only at 2 m) ,and water temperatures (from thermistors placed throughout the water column at intervals varying from 0.5 to 3m) are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Other parameters measured include precipitation, wind direction (beginning in 2008), and barometric pressure (beginning in 2008). Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
4
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity ( at 1, 2, and 3 m heights; but beginning in 2008, only at 2 m) ,and water temperatures (from thermistors placed throughout the water column at intervals varying from 0.5 to 3m) are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Other parameters measured include precipitation, wind direction (beginning in 2008), and barometric pressure (beginning in 2008). Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min.Dissolved oxygen sensors: 2004-2006: Greenspan Technology series 1200; 2007-2016: Zebra-Tech Ltd. D-Opto; 2018+: OTT HydrolabCO2 sensors: 2018+: ProOceanos MiniCO2 for dissolved CO2; Eosense Inc. eosGP for atmospheric CO2
Short Name
NTLEV01
Version Number
33

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Water Temperature Data - Sparkling Bog North Buoy 2008 - current

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Sparkling Bog North is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature at the surface, at 0.25 m and at every .5 m from 0.5 m to 4.5 m. The surface temperature sensors are attached to floats so that they are as close to the surface as feasible. The buoy is also equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, meteorological sensors, a CO2 sensor and a YSI AutoProfiler that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Prior to May 2009, data were collected at 1 minute or 10 minute intervals. Since May 2009, data are being collected each minute. Hourly and daily water temperature averages are computed from high resolution data. Hourly and daily values may not be current with high resolution data. In 2008, the instrumented buoy was deployed in Sparkling Bog North from March 24 to November 10. In 2009, the buoy was deployed on the ice on March 7 and was not removed for the winter of 2009 to 2010. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. Generally 1 minute or 10 minutes. Number of sites: 1
Dataset ID
228
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented buoy on Sparkling Bog North is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature at the surface, at 0.25 m and at every .5 m from 0.5 m to 4.5 m. The buoy is also equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, meteorological sensors, a CO2 sensor and a YSI AutoProfiler that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Prior to May 2009, data were collected at 1 minute or 10 minute intervals. Since May 2009, data are being collected each minute. Hourly and daily water temperature averages are computed from high resolution data. Hourly and daily values may not be current with high resolution data. In 2008, the instrumented buoy was deployed in Sparkling Bog North from March 24 to November 10. In 2009, the buoy was deployed on the ice on March 7 and was not removed for the winter of 2009 to 2010. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample.
Short Name
NSPBBUOY2
Version Number
18

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Sparkling Bog North Buoy 2008 - 2012

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Sparkling Bog North is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected either at 1 minute or 10 minute intervals. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface, thermistors are at the surface, at 0.25 m and at every .5 m from 0.5 m to 4.5 m, and meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and air temperature. The buoy is also equipped with a CO2 monitor and a YSI AutoProfiler that measures several parameters including dissolved oxygen, water temperature, conductivity, pH, ORP, turbulence and chlorophyll-a. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. Generally 1 minute or 10 minutes. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
227
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Short Name
NSPBBUOY1
Version Number
20

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Water Temperature Data - Lake Mendota Buoy 2006 - current

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Lake Mendota is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature. In 2006, the thermistors were placed every 0.5m from the surface through 7m and every 1m from 7m to 15m. In 2007and 2008, the thermistors were placed every 0.5 m from the surface through 2m and every 1m from 2m to 20m. The sensor at the water surface is as close to the surface as feasible. The sensor housing itself is ~5cm long, so we have it at about 1 to 6cm deep.The Lake Mendota buoy is also equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are collected every minute. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Hourly and daily water temperature averages are computed from high resolution (1 minute) data. Hourly and daily values may not be current with high resolution data.Deployment dates: 2006: June 27-Oct 17; 2007: May 18-Oct 22; 2008: June 26-Nov 4; 2009: April 17-Nov 23; 2010: April 9-Nov 10; 2011: May 19-Nov 11; 2012: April 30-Nov 30; 2013: April 27-Oct 27; 2014: May 4-Oct 12; 2015: June 25-Sept 1; 2016: March 29-Dec 12; 2017: April 23 - Nov 13; 2018: April 11-Nov 15; 2019: April 16-Nov 11; 2020: April 2-Nov 21;
Sampling Frequency: one minute. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
130
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented buoy on Lake Mendota is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature. In 2006, the thermistors were placed every 0.5m from the surface through 7m and every 1m from 7m to 15m. In 2007and 2008, the thermistors were placed every 0.5 m from the surface through 2m and every 1m from 2m to 20m. The Lake Mendota buoy is also equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are collected every minute. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Hourly and daily water temperature averages are computed from high resolution (1 minute) data. Hourly and daily values may not be current with high resolution data.
Short Name
MEBUOY2
Version Number
30

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Data: Meteorological, Dissolved Oxygen, Chlorophyll, Phycocyanin - Lake Mendota Buoy 2006 - current

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Lake Mendota is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are collected every minute. Hourly and daily averages for water temperatures are derived from the high resolution data. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface. In 2006, the thermistors were placed every 0.5 m from the surface through 7m and every 1m from 7m to 15m. In 2007 and 2008, the thermistors were placed every 0.5 m from the surface through 2m and every 1m from 2m to 20m. Meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and barometric pressure. Not all sensors are deployed each season. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. The instrumented buoy was deployed in Lake Mendota in 2006 from June 27 to October 17. In 2007, from May 18 to October 29. In 2008, from 26 Jun to 14 Nov. In 2009, the buoy was deployed from April 17 to Nov 23. In 2009+, the Mendota buoy was located at 43.0995, -89.4045. 2017 notes: the buoy was deployed from Apr 22 to November 13. A boating mishap caused the loss of the air temp, humidity, and wind sensors between May 28 and July 11. The dissolved oxygen sensor had significant biofouling from algae and at least one zebra mussel during the year. In 2018 the buoy was deployed from April 11 to November 15. The dissolved oxygen sensor was a PME MiniDOT logger, having replaced a D-Opto sensor that was used since 2006. In 2019, the buoy was operating from April 16 to November 6th. A YSI Exo2 sonde was added to the buoy including dissolved oxygen (replacing the D-Opto), chlorophyll, phycocyanin, specific conductance, pH, fdom, and turbidity sensors. The chlorophyll and phycocyanin sensors are replacing older Turner sensors used in previous years. Both sets output RFU, but have a significant difference in magnitude. The YSI pH, DO, and specific conductance sensors were cleaned and calibrated about every two weeks. The sampling frequency is one minute. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
129
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Short Name
MEBUOY1
Version Number
32

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Crystal Bog Buoy 2005 - 2014

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Crystal Bog is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface, thermistors are placed every 0.25m throughout the water column, and meteorological sensors measure wind speed, relative humidity, and air temperature. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
118
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Short Name
CBBUOY1
Version Number
29

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Water Temperature Data - Crystal Bog Buoy 2005 - 2014

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Crystal Bog is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature from depths ranging from the surface to 2.25m placed every 0.25m throughout the water column. The surface temperature sensors are attached to floats so that they are as close to the surface as feasible. The Crsytal Bog buoy is also equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
119
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented buoy on Crystal Bog is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature from depths ranging from the surface to 2.25m placed every 0.25m throughout the water column. The Crsytal Bog buoy is also equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples
Short Name
CBBUOY2
Version Number
26
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