US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

Fluxes project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Spatial Metabolism Study 2007

Abstract
Data from a lake spatial metabolism study by Matthew C. Van de Bogert for his Phd project, "Aquatic ecosystem carbon cycling: From individual lakes to the landscape."; The goal of this study was to capture the spatial heterogeneity of within-lake processes in effort to make robust estimates of daily metabolism metrics such as gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R), and net ecosystem production (NEP). In pursuing this goal, multiple sondes were placed at different locations and depths within two stratified Northern Temperate Lakes, Sparkling Lake (n=35 sondes) and Peter Lake (n=27 sondes), located in the Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, respectively.Dissolved oxygen and temperature measurements were made every 10 minutes over a 10 day period for each lake in July and August of 2007. Dissolved oxygen measurements were corrected for drift. In addition, conductivity, temperature compensated specific conductivity, pH, and oxidation reduction potential were measured by a subset of sondes in each lake. Two data tables list the spatial information regarding sonde placement in each lake, and a single data table lists information about the sondes (manufacturer, model, serial number etc.). Documentation :Van de Bogert, M.C., 2011. Aquatic ecosystem carbon cycling: From individual lakes to the landscape. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. The University of Wisconsin - Madison, United States -- Wisconsin, p. 156. Also see Van de Bogert, M.C., Bade, D.L., Carpenter, S.R., Cole, J.J., Pace, M.L., Hanson, P.C., Langman, O.C., 2012. Spatial heterogeneity strongly affects estimates of ecosystem metabolism in two north temperate lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 57, 1689-1700.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
285
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
Data were collected from two lakes, Sparkling Lake (46.008, -89.701) and Peter Lake (46.253, -89.504), both located in the northern highlands Lake District of Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan over a 10 day period on each lake in July and August of 2007. Refer to Van de Bogert et al. 2011 for limnological characteristics of the study lakes.Measurements of dissolved oxygen and temperature were made every 10 minutes using multiple sondes dispersed horizontally throughout the mixed-layer in the two lakes (n=35 sondes for Sparkling Lake and n=27 sondes for Peter Lake). Dissolved oxygen measurements were corrected for drift.Conductivity, temperature compensated specific conductivity, pH, and oxidation reduction potential were also measured by a subset of sensors in each lake. Of the 35 sondes in Sparkling Lake, 31 were from YSI Incorporated: 15 of model 600XLM, 14 of model 6920, and 2 of model 6600). The remaining sondes placed in Sparkling Lake were 4 D-Opto sensors, Zebra-Tech, LTD. In Peter Lake, 14 YSI model 6920 and 13 YSI model 600XLM sondes were used.Sampling locations were stratified randomly so that a variety of water depths were represented, however, a higher density of sensors were placed in the littoral rather than pelagic zone. See Van de Bogert et al. 2012 for the thermal (stratification) profile of Sparkling Lake and Peter Lake during the period of observation, and for details on how locations were classified as littoral or pelagic. In Sparkling Lake, 11 sensors were placed within the shallowest zone, 12 in the off-shore littoral, and 6 in each of the remaining two zones, for a total of 23 littoral and 12 pelagic sensors. Similarly, 15 sensors were placed in the two littoral zones, and 12 sensors in the pelagic zone.Sensors were randomly assigned locations within each of the zones using rasterized bathymetric maps of the lakes and a random number generator in Matlab. Within each lake, one pelagic sensor was placed at the deep hole which is used for routine-long term sampling.Note that in Sparkling Lake this corresponds to the location of the long-term monitoring buoy. After locations were determined, sensors were randomly assigned to each location with the exception of the four D-Opto sensor is Sparkling Lake, which are a part of larger monitoring buoys used in the NTL-LTER program. One of these was located near the deep hole of the lake while the other three were assigned to random locations along the north shore, south shore and pelagic regions of the lake. Documentation: Van de Bogert, M.C., Bade, D.L., Carpenter, S.R., Cole, J.J., Pace, M.L., Hanson, P.C., Langman, O.C., 2012. Spatial heterogeneity strongly affects estimates of ecosystem metabolism in two north temperate lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 57, 1689-1700.
Version Number
17

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Sparkling Lake Raft 1989 - current

Abstract
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a dissolved oxygen and CO2 sensors, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity ( at 1, 2, and 3 m heights; but beginning in 2008, only at 2 m) ,and water temperatures (from thermistors placed throughout the water column at intervals varying from 0.5 to 3m) are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Other parameters measured include precipitation, wind direction (beginning in 2008), and barometric pressure (beginning in 2008). Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
4
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity ( at 1, 2, and 3 m heights; but beginning in 2008, only at 2 m) ,and water temperatures (from thermistors placed throughout the water column at intervals varying from 0.5 to 3m) are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Other parameters measured include precipitation, wind direction (beginning in 2008), and barometric pressure (beginning in 2008). Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min.Dissolved oxygen sensors: 2004-2006: Greenspan Technology series 1200; 2007-2016: Zebra-Tech Ltd. D-Opto; 2018+: OTT HydrolabCO2 sensors: 2018+: ProOceanos MiniCO2 for dissolved CO2; Eosense Inc. eosGP for atmospheric CO2
Short Name
NTLEV01
Version Number
33

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Sparkling Bog North Buoy 2008 - 2012

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Sparkling Bog North is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected either at 1 minute or 10 minute intervals. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface, thermistors are at the surface, at 0.25 m and at every .5 m from 0.5 m to 4.5 m, and meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and air temperature. The buoy is also equipped with a CO2 monitor and a YSI AutoProfiler that measures several parameters including dissolved oxygen, water temperature, conductivity, pH, ORP, turbulence and chlorophyll-a. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. Generally 1 minute or 10 minutes. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
227
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Short Name
NSPBBUOY1
Version Number
20

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency CO2 and YSI AutoProfiler Data - Sparkling Bog North Buoy 2008

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Sparkling Bog North is equipped with a CO2 monitor and a YSI AutoProfiler that measures several parameters including dissolved oxygen, water temperature, conductivity, pH, ORP, turbulence and chlorophyll-a. The buoy is also equipped with a thermistor chain and a D-OPTO dissolved oxygen sensor at depth .5 m as well as meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected either at 1 minute or 10 minute intervals. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. Generally 1 minute or 10 minutes. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
229
Date Range
-
Instrumentation
<p>YSI AutoProfiler</p>
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description.
Short Name
NSPBBUOY3
Version Number
19

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Data: Meteorological, Dissolved Oxygen, Chlorophyll, Phycocyanin - Lake Mendota Buoy 2006 - current

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Lake Mendota is equipped with limnological and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are collected every minute. Hourly and daily averages are derived from the high resolution (1 minute) data. Hourly and daily values may not be current with high resolution data as they are calculated at the end of the season.

Meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, air temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Not all sensors are deployed each season. A list of sensors used since the first deployment in 2006 is provided as a downloadable CSV file.

Number of sites: 1. Location lat/long: 43.0995, -89.4045

Notable events:
2017 - A boating mishap caused the loss of air temperature, relative humidity, and wind sensors between May 28 and July 11. The dissolved oxygen sensor had significant biofouling from algae and zebra mussels.
2019 - A YSI EXO2 sonde was added to the buoy and includes DO, chlorophyll, phycocyanin, specific conductance, pH, fDOM, and turbidity sensors. The chlorophyll and phycocyanin sensors replace Turner Cyclops 7 fluorometers that had been in use in prior years. Both sets of sensors output RFU, but have significant magnitude differences. The YSI pH, DO, and specific conductance sensors were cleaned and recalibrated every two weeks.
2020 - Cleaning and calibration of the YSI sensors occurred nearly every week. The dissolved CO2 sensor was not operating between July 2 and September 17.


Core Areas
Dataset ID
129
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
See abstract for methods description
Short Name
MEBUOY1
Version Number
32

Cascade Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Physical and Chemical Limnology 1984 - 2007

Abstract
Physical and chemical variables are measured at one central station near the deepest point of each lake. In most cases these measurements are made in the morning (0800 to 0900). Vertical profiles are taken at varied depth intervals. Chemical measurements are sometimes made in a pooled mixed layer sample (PML); sometimes in the epilimnion, metalimnion, and hypolimnion; and sometimes in vertical profiles. In the latter case, depths for sampling usually correspond to the surface plus depths of 50percent, 25percent, 10percent, 5percent and 1percent of surface irradiance.The 1991-1995 chemistry data obtained from the Lachat auto-analyzer. Like the process data, there are up to seven samples per sampling date due to Van Dorn collections across a depth interval according to percent irradiance. Voichick and LeBouton (1994) describe the autoanalyzer procedures in detail.Methods for 1984-1990 were described by Carpenter and Kitchell (1993) and methods for 1991-1997 were described by Carpenter et al. (2001).Carpenter, S.R. and J.F. Kitchell (eds.). 1993. The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.Carpenter, S.R., J.J. Cole, J.R. Hodgson, J.F. Kitchell, M.L. Pace,D. Bade, K.L. Cottingham, T.E. Essington, J.N. Houser and D.E. Schindler. 2001. Trophic cascades, nutrients and lake productivity: whole-lake experiments. Ecological Monographs 71: 163-186.Number of sites: 8
Dataset ID
71
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
The 1991-1995 chemistry data obtained from the Lachat auto-analyzer. Like the process data, there are up to seven samples per sampling date due to Van Dorn collections across a depth interval according to percent irradiance. Voichick and LeBouton (1994) describe the autoanalyzer procedures in detail.Methods for 1984-1990 were described by Carpenter and Kitchell (1993) and methods for 1991-1997 were described by Carpenter et al. (2001).Carpenter, S.R. and J.F. Kitchell (eds.). 1993. The Trophic Cascade in Lakes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.Carpenter, S.R., J.J. Cole, J.R. Hodgson, J.F. Kitchell, M.L. Pace,D. Bade, K.L. Cottingham, T.E. Essington, J.N. Houser and D.E. Schindler. 2001. Trophic cascades, nutrients and lake productivity: whole-lake experiments. Ecological Monographs 71: 163-186.Number of sites: 8
Short Name
CPHYS1
Version Number
4

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Trout Lake Buoy 2004 - current

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Trout Lake is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface. Meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and barometric pressure. Starting in 2005, thermistors were placed every 0.5-1m from the surface through 14m and every 2 to 4m from 14m to the bottom of the water column at 31m. In July 2006, a new thermistor chain was deployed with thermistors placed every meter from the surface through a depth of 19 meters. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Data are averaged to daily values from one minute samples for years 2005 - 2006. Daily values are computed from high resolution data starting in year 2007. Data are averaged to hourly values from one minute samples for years 2005 - 2008, Hourly values are computed from high resolution data starting in year 2009. Hourly and daily values may not be current with high resolution data in the current year. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
117
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented buoy on Trout Lake is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface. Meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and barometric pressure. Starting in 2005, thermistors were placed every 0.5-1m from the surface through 14m and every 2 to 4m from 14m to the bottom of the water column at 31m. In July 2006, a new thermistor chain was deployed with thermistors placed every meter from the surface through a depth of 19 meters. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Data are averaged to daily values from one minute samples for years 2005 - 2006. Daily values are computed from high resolution data starting in year 2007. Data are averaged to hourly values from one minute samples for years 2005 - 2008, Hourly values are computed from high resolution data starting in year 2009. Hourly and daily values may not be current with high resolution data in the current year. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples
Short Name
TRBUOY1
Version Number
40

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Dissolved Oxygen Data - Trout Lake Buoy2 - ADCP 2005

Abstract
During the fall 2005, this instrumented buoy on Trout Lake was equipped with 4 Greenspan dissolved oxygen sensors placed at depths from the lake surface to 10m. Parameters measured at each depth included dissolved oxygen (DO), DO saturation and water temperature. Currently, this buoy measures air temperature, relative humidity and various wind parameters. It also is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature from depths placed every 0.5-1m from the surface through 13m. An acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) is associated with this buoy. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Dissolved oxygen (DO) data were collected for period 27 Aug 2005 through 3 Nov 2005. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
122
Date Range
-
LTER Keywords
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Publication Date
Short Name
TR2BUOY3
Version Number
10

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Trout Bog Buoy 2003 - 2014

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Trout Bog is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface, thermistors are placed every 0.5-1m throughout the water column, and meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and air temperature. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1
Dataset ID
69
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented buoy on Trout Bog is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface, thermistors are placed every 0.5-1m throughout the water column, and meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and air temperature. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples
Short Name
TBBUOY1
Version Number
22
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