US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

Cascade Project at North Temperate Lakes LTER High Frequency Sonde Data from Food Web Resilience Experiment 2008 - 2011

Abstract
High-frequency sonde data collected from the surface waters of two lakes in Upper Peninsula of Michigan during the summers of 2008-2011. The food web of Peter Lake was slowly transformed by gradual additions of Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) while Paul Lake was an unmanipulated reference. Sonde data were used to calculate resilience indicators to evaluate the stability of the food web and to calculate ecosystem metabolism.
Dataset ID
360
Date Range
-
Methods
Data were collected at 5 minute intervals using in-situ automated sensors (sondes). All measurements and samples were collected from a stationary raft over the deepest part of the lake.
Sondes were suspended from floats with probes at a depth of 0.75m below the surface. Sonde sensors were cleaned daily in the field and calibrated monthly following manufacturer guidelines. Peter and Paul lakes were each monitored with two YSI multiparameter sondes (model 6600 V2-4) fitted with optical DO (model 6150), pH (model 6561), optical Chl-a (model 6025), and conductivity-temperature (model 6560) probes. Sensor measurements were made at 0.75 m every 5 min and were calibrated weekly. PAR was measured and the UNDERC meteorology station maintained by the University of Notre Dame or by the North Temperate Lakes Weather Station at Woodruff Airport.
Outliers were replaced by NA. Occasional gaps in the record due to instrument cleaning are NA.
Version Number
1

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Sparkling Lake UCSD buoy 2013

Abstract
During the summer of 2013 an additional buoy with wind, pressure, temperature and precipitation sensors was located on Sparkling Lake.
Contact
Dataset ID
304
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
wind, pressure, temperature and precipitation sensors on buoy.
Version Number
16

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological Data - Crystal Lake 2011 - 2014

Abstract
Data from the instrumented buoy on Crystal Lake include micrometeorological parameters, relative humidity, air temperature, wind velocity, wind driection (2 m height),and water temperatures, pH, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen measured by a sonde that is moving through the water column.
Contact
Dataset ID
302
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
Data from the instrumented buoy on Crystal Lake include micrometeorological parameters, relative humidity, air temperature, wind velocity, wind driection (2 m height),and water temperatures, pH, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen measured by a sonde that is moving through the water column. Sampling Frequency: one minute;
Version Number
19

Additional Daily Meteorological Data for Madison Wisconsin (1884-2010)

Abstract
These data are in addition to "Madison Wisconsin Daily Meteorological Data 1869-current." Additional variables added include: daily cloud cover, wind, solar radiation, vapor pressure, dew point temperature, total atmospheric pressure, and average relative humidity for Madison, Wisconsin. In addition, the adjustment factors which were applied on a given date to calculate the adjusted parameters in "Madison Wisconsin Daily Meteorological Data 1869-current" are also included in these data. Raw data, in English units, were assembled by Douglas Clark - Wisconsin State Climatologist. Data were converted to metric units and adjusted for temporal biases by Dale M. Robertson. For adjustments applied to various parameters see Robertson, 1989 Ph.D. Thesis UW-Madison. Adjusted data represent the BEST estimated daily data and may be raw data. Data collected at Washburn observatory, 8-1-1883 to 9-30-1904. Data collected at North Hall, 10-1-1904 to 12-31-1947 Data collected at Truax Field (Admin BLDG), 1-1-1948 to 12-31-1959. Data collected at Truax Field, center of field, 1-1-1960 to Present. Much of the data after 1990 were obtained in digital form from Ed Hopkins, UW-Meteorology. Data starting in 2002-2005 were obtained from Sullivan at http://www.weather.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=mkx%20 ,then go to CF6 and download monthly data to Madison_sullivan_conversion. Relative humidity data was obtained from 1986 to 1995 from CD's at the State Climatologist's Office. Since Robertson (1989) adjusted all historical data to that collected prior to 1989; no adjustments were applied to the recent data except for wind and estimated vapor pressure. Wind after January 1997, and only wind from the southwest after November 2007, was extended by Dale M. Robertson and Yi-Fang "Yvonne" Hsieh, see methods. Estimated vapor pressure after April 2002 was updated by Yvonne Hsieh, see methods.
Dataset ID
282
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
Raw data (in English units) were assembled by Douglas Clark - Wisconsin State Climatologist. Data were converted to metric units and adjusted for temporal biases by Dale M. Robertson. For adjustments applied to various parameters see Robertson, 1989 Ph.D. Thesis UW-Madison. Adjusted data represent the BEST estimated daily data and may be raw data. Data collected at Washburn observatory, 8-1-1883 to 9-30-1904. Data collected at North Hall, 10-1-1904 to 12-31-1947 Data collected at Truax Field (Admin BLDG), 1-1-1948 to 12-31-1959. Data collected at Truax Field (Center of Field), 1-1-1960 to Present. Much of the data after 1990 were obtained in digital form from Ed Hopkins, UW-Meteorology. Data starting in 2002-05 were obtained from Sullivan at <a href="http://www.weather.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=mkx%20">http://www.weather.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=mkx</a> ,then go to CF6 and download monthly data to Madison_sullivan_conversion. Since Robertson (1989) adjusted all historical data to that collected from 1884-1989; no adjustments were applied to the recent data except for (1) wind and (2) estimated vapor pressure:(1) Wind after January 1997, and only wind from the southwest after November 2007, was extended by Dale M. Robertson and Yvonne Hsieh.In 1996, a discontinuity in the wind record was caused by change in observational techniques and sensor locations (Mckee et al. 2000). To address the non-climatic changes in wind speed, data from MSN were carefully compared with those collected from the tower of the Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Building at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, see http://ginsea.aos.wisc.edu/labs/mendota/index.htm. Hourly data from both sites (UMSN,hourly and UAOS,hourly) during 2003&ndash;2010 were used to form a 4&times;12 (four components of wind direction &times; 12 months) matrix (K4,12) of wind correction factors, yielding UAOS,daily= Ki,j&times;UMSN,daily. The comparison results indicated that the MSN weather station reported a higher magnitude in winds out of the east by 5% and lower magnitude in winds out of the west and south by 30% and 10%. The adjusted wind data (=Ki,j&times;UMSN,daily) were therefore employed and used in the model simulation. After adjustments, there was a decrease in wind velocities starting shortly before 1996. Overall the adjusted wind data had a decline in wind velocities of 16% from 1988&ndash;93 to 1994&ndash;2009) compared to a 7% decline at a nearby weather station with no known observational changes (St. Charles, Illinois; 150 km southeast of Lake Mendota). (2) Estimated vapor pressure was updated (after April 2002) by using the equation from DYRESM for estimation of vapor pressure (a function of both air temperature and dew point temperature); where a=7.5, b=237.3, and c=.7858.
Version Number
23

South: Field Sampling Routine

A. Nutrient Sampling: Refer to the Field Sheet to see which bottles need to be sampled at which depths and the 'Southern Lakes LTER Bottle Codes’ for preservation, filtering, and coding information.
 
1.     Purge the lines: Whenever sampling from a new depth, the peristaltic pump tubing must be purged of the water from the previous depth. After reaching the proper sampling depth, use a graduated cylinder to measure the volume of water purged before beginning the sampling. Purge at least 1200 mL of water for each 20 meters of tu

Lake Metabolism

Study sites
We sampled surface waters of 31 lakes in the Northern Highland Lake district of Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during July and August of 2000 (Table 1). The lakes were chosen to span wide and orthogonal ranges in DOC and TP concentrations and for their close proximity to the Trout Lake Station in Vilas county, Wisconsin. The order in which the lakes were sampled was randomized.

North Temperate Lakes LTER Meteorological Data - Woodruff Airport 1989 - current

Abstract
Meteorological measurements are being gathered at a site at the Noble F. Lee Municipal airport located at Woodruff, WI for three purposes: 1) to supplement the data from the raft on Sparkling Lake used for evaporation calculations, and 2) to provide standard meteorological measurements for the North Temperate Lakes site, and 3) to measure radiation for primary production studies in the study lakes at the site. The following parameters are measured at 1-minute intervals: 1) air temperature at 1.5 m above ground, 2) relative humidity at 1.5 m above ground, 3) wind speed and direction and peak windspeed at 3 m above ground, 4) total long-wave radiation, 5) total short-wave radiation, 6) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), 7) total solar radiation, and 8) total precipitation. High resolution data is taken, typically at 10 minute intervals, as well as 1-hour and 24-hour averages: Half-hourly averages of PAR and shortwave radiation are also stored. Precipitation data are summed for 5-minute intervals during periods of detectable precipitation. Derived data included in this data set include dewpoint temperature and vapor pressure, as well as daily minimum and maximum values for some parameters. Data are automatically updated into the database every six hours. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly, half-hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1. Date/time is Central Standard Time (GMT - 06:00) throughout the year.
Dataset ID
17
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
The following parameters are measured at 1-minute intervals: 1) air temperature at 1.5 m above ground, 2) relative humidity at 1.5 m above ground, 3) wind speed and direction and peak windspeed at 3 m above ground, 4) total long-wave radiation, 5) total short-wave radiation, 6) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), 7) total solar radiation, and 8) total precipitation. High resolution data is taken, typically at 10 minute intervals, as well as 1-hour and 24-hour averages: Half-hourly averages of PAR and shortwave radiation are also stored. Precipitation data are summed for 5-minute intervals during periods of detectable precipitation. Derived data included in this data set include dewpoint temperature and vapor pressure, as well as daily minimum and maximum values for some parameters. Data are automatically updated into the database every six hours. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly, half-hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1
Short Name
NTLME01
Version Number
32

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Sparkling Lake Raft 1989 - current

Abstract
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a dissolved oxygen and CO2 sensors, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity ( at 1, 2, and 3 m heights; but beginning in 2008, only at 2 m) ,and water temperatures (from thermistors placed throughout the water column at intervals varying from 0.5 to 3m) are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Other parameters measured include precipitation, wind direction (beginning in 2008), and barometric pressure (beginning in 2008). Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
4
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity ( at 1, 2, and 3 m heights; but beginning in 2008, only at 2 m) ,and water temperatures (from thermistors placed throughout the water column at intervals varying from 0.5 to 3m) are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Other parameters measured include precipitation, wind direction (beginning in 2008), and barometric pressure (beginning in 2008). Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min.Dissolved oxygen sensors: 2004-2006: Greenspan Technology series 1200; 2007-2016: Zebra-Tech Ltd. D-Opto; 2018+: OTT HydrolabCO2 sensors: 2018+: ProOceanos MiniCO2 for dissolved CO2; Eosense Inc. eosGP for atmospheric CO2
Short Name
NTLEV01
Version Number
32

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Sparkling Bog North Buoy 2008 - 2012

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Sparkling Bog North is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected either at 1 minute or 10 minute intervals. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface, thermistors are at the surface, at 0.25 m and at every .5 m from 0.5 m to 4.5 m, and meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and air temperature. The buoy is also equipped with a CO2 monitor and a YSI AutoProfiler that measures several parameters including dissolved oxygen, water temperature, conductivity, pH, ORP, turbulence and chlorophyll-a. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. Generally 1 minute or 10 minutes. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
227
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Short Name
NSPBBUOY1
Version Number
20

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Data: Meteorological, Dissolved Oxygen, Chlorophyll, Phycocyanin - Lake Mendota Buoy 2006 - current

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Lake Mendota is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are collected every minute. Hourly and daily averages for water temperatures are derived from the high resolution data. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface. In 2006, the thermistors were placed every 0.5 m from the surface through 7m and every 1m from 7m to 15m. In 2007 and 2008, the thermistors were placed every 0.5 m from the surface through 2m and every 1m from 2m to 20m. Meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and barometric pressure. Not all sensors are deployed each season. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. The instrumented buoy was deployed in Lake Mendota in 2006 from June 27 to October 17. In 2007, from May 18 to October 29. In 2008, from 26 Jun to 14 Nov. In 2009, the buoy was deployed from April 17 to Nov 23. In 2009+, the Mendota buoy was located at 43.0995, -89.4045. 2017 notes: the buoy was deployed from Apr 22 to November 13. A boating mishap caused the loss of the air temp, humidity, and wind sensors between May 28 and July 11. The dissolved oxygen sensor had significant biofouling from algae and at least one zebra mussel during the year. In 2018 the buoy was deployed from April 11 to November 15. The dissolved oxygen sensor was a PME MiniDOT logger, having replaced a D-Opto sensor that was used since 2006. In 2019, the buoy was operating from April 16 to November 6th. A YSI Exo2 sonde was added to the buoy including dissolved oxygen (replacing the D-Opto), chlorophyll, phycocyanin, specific conductance, pH, fdom, and turbidity sensors. The chlorophyll and phycocyanin sensors are replacing older Turner sensors used in previous years. Both sets output RFU, but have a significant difference in magnitude. The YSI pH, DO, and specific conductance sensors were cleaned and calibrated about every two weeks. The sampling frequency is one minute. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
129
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Short Name
MEBUOY1
Version Number
31
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