US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

North Temperate Lakes LTER Meteorological Data - Woodruff Airport 1989 - current

Abstract
Meteorological measurements are being gathered at a site at the Noble F. Lee municipal airport located at Woodruff, WI for three purposes: 1) to supplement the data from the raft on Sparkling and Trout Lakes used for evaporation calculations, and 2) to provide standard meteorological measurements for the North Temperate Lakes site, and 3) to measure radiation for primary production studies in the study lakes at the site. The following parameters are measured at 1-minute intervals: 1) air temperature at 1.5 m above ground, 2) relative humidity at 1.5 m above ground, 3) wind speed and direction and peak wind speed at 3 m above ground, 4) total long-wave radiation, 5) total short-wave radiation, 6) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), 7) total solar radiation, and 8) total precipitation. High resolution data is taken typically at 10 minute intervals as well as 1-hour and 24-hour averages. Half-hourly averages of PAR and shortwave radiation are also stored. Precipitation data are summed for 5-minute intervals during periods of detectable precipitation. Derived data included in this data set include dew point temperature and vapor pressure as well as daily minimum and maximum values for some parameters. Data are automatically updated into the database every six hours. Sampling frequency: varies for instantaneous samples; averaged to hourly, half-hourly and daily values. Number of sites: 1. Date/time is Central Standard Time (GMT - 06:00) throughout the year.
Dataset ID
17
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
See abstract for methods.
Short Name
NTLME01
Version Number
33

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Sparkling Lake Raft 1989 - current

Abstract
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a dissolved oxygen and CO2 sensors, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity ( at 1, 2, and 3 m heights; but beginning in 2008, only at 2 m) ,and water temperatures (from thermistors placed throughout the water column at intervals varying from 0.5 to 3m) are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Other parameters measured include precipitation, wind direction (beginning in 2008), and barometric pressure (beginning in 2008). Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
4
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake is equipped with a D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, evaporation rates, and lake metabolism. Estimating the flux of solutes to and from lakes requires accurate water budgets. Evaporation rates are a critical component of the water budget of lakes. Data from the instrumented raft on Sparkling Lake includes micrometeorological parameters from which evaporation can be calculated. Raft measurements of relative humidity and air temperature (2 m height), wind velocity ( at 1, 2, and 3 m heights; but beginning in 2008, only at 2 m) ,and water temperatures (from thermistors placed throughout the water column at intervals varying from 0.5 to 3m) are combined with measurements of total long-wave and short-wave radiation data from a nearby shore station to determine evaporation by the energy budget technique. Comparable evaporation estimates from mass transfer techniques are calibrated against energy budget estimates to produce a lake-specific mass transfer coefficient for use in estimating evaporation rates. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Other parameters measured include precipitation, wind direction (beginning in 2008), and barometric pressure (beginning in 2008). Sampling Frequency: one minute; averaged to hourly and daily values as well as higher resolution values such as 2 min and 10 min.Dissolved oxygen sensors: 2004-2006: Greenspan Technology series 1200; 2007-2016: Zebra-Tech Ltd. D-Opto; 2018+: OTT HydrolabCO2 sensors: 2018+: ProOceanos MiniCO2 for dissolved CO2; Eosense Inc. eosGP for atmospheric CO2
Short Name
NTLEV01
Version Number
33

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Sparkling Bog North Buoy 2008 - 2012

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Sparkling Bog North is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected either at 1 minute or 10 minute intervals. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface, thermistors are at the surface, at 0.25 m and at every .5 m from 0.5 m to 4.5 m, and meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and air temperature. The buoy is also equipped with a CO2 monitor and a YSI AutoProfiler that measures several parameters including dissolved oxygen, water temperature, conductivity, pH, ORP, turbulence and chlorophyll-a. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. Generally 1 minute or 10 minutes. Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
227
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Short Name
NSPBBUOY1
Version Number
20

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Data: Meteorological, Dissolved Oxygen, Chlorophyll, Phycocyanin - Lake Mendota Buoy 2006 - current

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Lake Mendota is equipped with limnological and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are collected every minute. Hourly and daily averages are derived from the high resolution (1 minute) data. Hourly and daily values may not be current with high resolution data as they are calculated at the end of the season.

Meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, air temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Not all sensors are deployed each season. A list of sensors used since the first deployment in 2006 is provided as a downloadable CSV file.

Number of sites: 1. Location lat/long: 43.0995, -89.4045

Notable events:
2017 - A boating mishap caused the loss of air temperature, relative humidity, and wind sensors between May 28 and July 11. The dissolved oxygen sensor had significant biofouling from algae and zebra mussels.
2019 - A YSI EXO2 sonde was added to the buoy and includes DO, chlorophyll, phycocyanin, specific conductance, pH, fDOM, and turbidity sensors. The chlorophyll and phycocyanin sensors replace Turner Cyclops 7 fluorometers that had been in use in prior years. Both sets of sensors output RFU, but have significant magnitude differences. The YSI pH, DO, and specific conductance sensors were cleaned and recalibrated every two weeks.
2020 - Cleaning and calibration of the YSI sensors occurred nearly every week. The dissolved CO2 sensor was not operating between July 2 and September 17.


Core Areas
Dataset ID
129
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
See abstract for methods description
Short Name
MEBUOY1
Version Number
32

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Trout Lake Buoy 2004 - current

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Trout Lake is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface. Meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and barometric pressure. Starting in 2005, thermistors were placed every 0.5-1m from the surface through 14m and every 2 to 4m from 14m to the bottom of the water column at 31m. In July 2006, a new thermistor chain was deployed with thermistors placed every meter from the surface through a depth of 19 meters. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Data are averaged to daily values from one minute samples for years 2005 - 2006. Daily values are computed from high resolution data starting in year 2007. Data are averaged to hourly values from one minute samples for years 2005 - 2008, Hourly values are computed from high resolution data starting in year 2009. Hourly and daily values may not be current with high resolution data in the current year. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
117
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented buoy on Trout Lake is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface. Meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and barometric pressure. Starting in 2005, thermistors were placed every 0.5-1m from the surface through 14m and every 2 to 4m from 14m to the bottom of the water column at 31m. In July 2006, a new thermistor chain was deployed with thermistors placed every meter from the surface through a depth of 19 meters. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Data are averaged to daily values from one minute samples for years 2005 - 2006. Daily values are computed from high resolution data starting in year 2007. Data are averaged to hourly values from one minute samples for years 2005 - 2008, Hourly values are computed from high resolution data starting in year 2009. Hourly and daily values may not be current with high resolution data in the current year. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples
Short Name
TRBUOY1
Version Number
40

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological and Dissolved Oxygen Data - Trout Bog Buoy 2003 - 2014

Abstract
The instrumented buoy on Trout Bog is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface, thermistors are placed every 0.5-1m throughout the water column, and meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and air temperature. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1
Dataset ID
69
Date Range
-
Maintenance
ongoing
Metadata Provider
Methods
The instrumented buoy on Trout Bog is equipped with a dissolved oxygen sensor, a thermistor chain, and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. The D-Opto dissolved oxygen sensor is 0.5m from the lake surface, thermistors are placed every 0.5-1m throughout the water column, and meteorological sensors measure wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and air temperature. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples
Short Name
TBBUOY1
Version Number
22

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Meteorological - Trout Lake Buoy2 - ADCP 2005 - 2006

Abstract
This instrumented buoy on Trout Lake is equipped with a thermistor chain and meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure, weather conditions, and lake metabolism. An acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) is associated with this buoy. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. The thermistors are placed every 0.5-1m from the surface through 13m, and meteorological sensors measure relative humidity, air temperature and wind parameters. In the fall of 2005, the buoy also included 4 Greenspan dissolved oxygen sensors placed at depths from the lake surface to 10m. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1
Dataset ID
120
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Publication Date
Short Name
TR2BUOY1
Version Number
11
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