US Long-Term Ecological Research Network

Ebullitive methane emissions from oxygenated wetland streams at North Temperate Lakes LTER 2013

Abstract
Stream and river carbon dioxide emissions are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Methane emissions from streams could also contribute to regional or global greenhouse gas cycling, but there are relatively few data regarding stream and river methane emissions. Furthermore, the available data do not typically include the ebullitive (bubble-mediated) pathway, instead focusing on emission of dissolved methane by diffusion or convection. Here, we show the importance of ebullitive methane emissions from small streams in the regional greenhouse gas balance of a lake and wetland-dominated landscape in temperate North America and identify the origin of the methane emitted from these well-oxygenated streams. Stream methane flux densities from this landscape tended to exceed those of nearby wetland diffusive fluxes as well as average global wetland ebullitive fluxes. Total stream ebullitive methane flux at the regional scale (103 Mg C yr-1; over 6400 km2) was of the same magnitude as diffusive methane flux previously documented at the same scale. Organic-rich stream sediments had the highest rates of bubble release and higher enrichment of methane in bubbles, but glacial sand sediments also exhibited high bubble emissions relative to other studied environments. Our results from a database of groundwater chemistry support the hypothesis that methane in bubbles is produced in anoxic near-stream sediment porewaters, and not in deeper, oxygenated groundwaters. Methane interacts with other key elemental cycles such as nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, which has implications for ecosystem changes such as drought and increased nutrient loading. Our results support the contention that streams, particularly those draining wetland landscapes of the northern hemisphere, are an important component of the global methane cycle.
Dataset ID
308
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
Rate of bubble releaseWe deployed 30 inverted funnel-style bubble traps (Molongoski and Klug, 1980; Baulch et al., 2011) on Allequash Creek on 31 May 2013 to measure volumetric bubble release rates. Fifteen traps were placed in two sandy sediment sections and 15 were placed in muck sediments in the wetland portion of the creek (number 8–22), which sits in-between the two sandy sections. Site 1 was the most downstream sampling site (water flows from East to West). Traps were sampled approximately every other day after 1 June 2013 until 31 October 2013 (we omitted the first samples collected 24 h following trap installation; total of 65 sample events per trap). Our sampling design allowed us to assess both the spatial and temporal variability in ebullition along Allequash Creek and how ebullition related to potential controlling factors such as sediment composition, atmospheric pressure, groundwater CH4, and organic matter content (discussed further below). To characterize our ebullition time series from Allequash Creek in the larger context of the NHLD, we installed an additional 12 traps on three additional creeks (Mann Creek, Stevenson Creek, and North Creek in the Trout Lake drainage; three per site in an even mix of sand and muck sediments) and the headwater spring ponds that drain into Allequash Creek on 23 June 2013 which we sampled approximately every week for the remainder of the study. Bubble traps had a bottom surface area of appr. 503 cm2 which narrowed at the top into a graduated (1 mL resolution) syringe and 3-way stopcock. Traps were attached to steel poles that were pounded into the substrate. Traps were almost completely submerged and contained no headspace at deployment. Water depth below traps averaged 55.7 cm, but we were unable to place traps in locations where water depth was shallower than 15 cm. Water velocity during baseflow at the traps averaged 0.06 m s -1 (range = 0.003–0.23 m s -1). We sampled traps by carefully approaching them either by boat (muck sites) or by wading (sandy sites) to avoid induced ebullition. Volume of accumulated gas in the trap was based on the graduated syringe, and volumes less than 1 mL were recorded as zero. Traps were reset between sampling events by refilling them completely with water to eliminate all headspace. To assess the hypothesis that declines in atmospheric pressure are related to increased bubble release (Mattson and Likens, 1990; Comas et al., 2011), we compared a 15 min resolution atmospheric pressure time series recorded using a Vaisala BAROCAP barometer deployed near trap number 7 with a subset of the bubble release time series.
Version Number
21

Greenhouse gas emissions from streams at North Temperate Lakes LTER 2012

Abstract
Aquatic ecosystems can be important components of landscape carbon budgets. In lake-rich landscapes, streams may be important sources of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) to the atmosphere in addition to lakes, but their source strength is poorly documented. The processes which control gas concentrations and emissions in these interconnected landscapes of lakes, streams and groundwater have not been adequately addressed. In this paper we use multiple datasets that vary in their spatial and temporal extent to investigate the carbon gas source strength of streams in a lake-rich landscape and to determine the roles of lakes and groundwater. We show that streams emit roughly the same mass of CO2 as regional lakes, and that stream CH4 emissions are an important component of the regional greenhouse gas balance.
Dataset ID
307
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
Sampling DesignSampling of gas partial pressures, and gas transfer velocities was performed weekly at five stream sites (Mann Creek, Allequash Lower Creek, Allequash Middle, Stevenson Creek, North Creek) that drain into Trout Lake (Figure 1), one of the regions larger lakes. Sampling began in May 2012 and continued through September 2012. These data were used to establish variability in gas transfer rates for the basin, and to investigate spatiotemporal patterns. To test for the effects of upstream lakes, sampling at 30 additional longitudinal transect sites along 6 streams (5 sites per stream; Figure 1) was conducted approximately every 3 weeks beginning in May 2012. Transect streams were chosen based on the presence or absence of lakes in the upstream watershed. Streams with lakes (Lost, White Sand, Aurora) were sampled starting at the approximate lake outlet (site selection based on aerial photographs), and along a 2000 m transect (0m, 250m, 500m, 1000m, 2000m). Upstream lake chemistry (epilimnion) was also sampled during late July or early August 2012 at the lake center to allow for a direct comparison with streams. Streams without upstream lakes (Stella, Mud, and North) were sampled at an arbitrary upstream location (0m) and followed the same sampling progression as streams with lakes. We analyzed stream chemistry and stream morphology data from a regional stream survey (Lottig and others 2011) which we use to scale fluxes to the NHLD (Figure 1). We also studied groundwater CO2 and CH4 patterns along a hillslope transect at Allequash Creek during 2001. In 2002, we monitored hourly CO2 and O2 dynamics at the four WEBB sites to assess the role of ecosystem metabolism.
Version Number
21

Fluxes project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Hydrology Scenarios Model Output

Abstract
A spatially-explicit simulation model of hydrologic flow-paths was developed by Matthew C. Van de Bogert and collaborators for his PhD project, "Aquatic ecosystem carbon cycling: From individual lakes to the landscape." The model is coupled with an in-lake carbon model and simulates hydrologic flow paths in groundwater, wetlands, lakes, uplands, and streams. The goal of this modeling effort was to compare aquatic carbon cycling in two climate scenarios for the North Highlands Lake District (NHLD) of northern Wisconsin: one based on the current climate and the other based on a scenario with warmer winters where lakes and uplands do not freeze, hereinafter referred to as the "no freeze" scenario. In modeling this "no freeze" scenario the same precipitation and temperature data as the current climate model was used, however temperature inputs were artificially floored at 0 degrees Celsius. While not discussed in his dissertation, Van de Bogert considered two other climate scenarios each using the same precipitation and temperature data as the current climate scenario. These scenarios involved running the model after artificially raising and lowering the current temperature data by 10 degrees Celsius. Thus, four scenarios were considered in this modeling effort, the current climate scenario, the "no freeze" scenario, the +10 degrees scenario, and the -10 degrees scenario. These data are the outputs of the model under the different scenarios and include average monthly temperature, average monthly rainfall, average monthly snowfall, total monthly precipitation, daily evapotranspiration, daily surface runoff, daily groundwater recharge, and daily total runoff. Note that the results of how temperature inputs influence aquatic carbon cycling under these different scenarios is not included in this data set, refer to Van de Bogert (2011) for this information. Documentation: Van de Bogert, M.C., 2011. Aquatic ecosystem carbon cycling: From individual lakes to the landscape. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. The University of Wisconsin - Madison, United States -- Wisconsin, p. 156.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
286
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
The spatially explicit Lakes, Uplands, Wetlands Integrator (LUWI) model of the NHLD was used to explore the interactions among climate, watershed connections, hydrology and carbon cycling. See Cardille et al. 2007 and Cardille et al. 2009 for details on the LUWI model. See Van de Bogert (2011) for a discussion of how these model outputs are used in conjunction with LUWI to predict the effects on lake carbon cycling under the current and "no freeze" climate scenarios.The climate data used in this modeling effort, precipitation and temperature, were obtained from Minoqua, Wisconsin, USA from 1948-2000. In order to test the effect of a climate without freezing temperatures on lake water and carbon cycling the current climate was modeled in addition to a “no freeze” scenario where a minimum air temperature of 0 degrees Celsius was imposed on the model. Note that Van de Bogert (2011) only focuses on the current and “no freeze” climate scenarios, but these data are representative of four climate scenarios: the current climate (base_minoqua_precip), the scenario where the current climate is artificially floored to zero degrees Celsius (no_below_zero), and the scenarios where the current climate is increased and decreased by 10 degrees Celsius (minus_10_degrees and plus_10_degrees).Furthermore, the temperature and precipitation data that was used for the current climate model runs was broken up into aggregates.The aggregates are the length of the 1948-2000 Minoqua temperature and precipitation data that was used in model runs. A total of seven different aggregates were used for model runs under each of the four climate scenarios. The aggregates include temperature and precipitation data from Minoqua, WI, USA for 1. the complete record from 1948-2000 (1948_2000) 2. the driest year which was 1976 (1976_driest) 3. The wettest year which was 1953 (1953_wettest) 4. the five driest years on record from 1948-2000 (5_driest) 5. the five wettest years on record from 1948-2000 (5_wettest) 6. the five coldest years on record for December, January, and February from 1948-2000 (5_coldest_djf) 7. the five warmest years on record for December, January, and February from 1948-2000 (5_warmest_djf).The volume and timing of precipitation to the region were unchanged between scenarios.Evaporation rates were derived from values obtained from the NTL-LTER study site, Sparkling Lake (46.01, -89.70). Refer to Van de Bogert (2011) for a more complete discussion of model inputs and a discussion of the results of the model output. Documentation: Van de Bogert, M.C., 2011. Aquatic ecosystem carbon cycling: From individual lakes to the landscape. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. The University of Wisconsin - Madison, United States -- Wisconsin, p. 156.Cardille, J.A., Carpenter, S.R., Coe, M.T., Foley, J.A., Hanson, P.C., Turner, M.G., Vano, J.A., 2007. Carbon and water cycling in lake-rich landscapes: Landscape connections, lake hydrology, and biogeochemistry. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 112.Cardille, J.A., Carpenter, S.R., Foley, J.A., Hanson, P.C., Turner, M.G., Vano, J.A., 2009. Climate change and lakes: Estimating sensitivities of water and carbon budgets. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 114.
Version Number
20

Fluxes project at North Temperate Lakes LTER: Spatial Metabolism Study 2007

Abstract
Data from a lake spatial metabolism study by Matthew C. Van de Bogert for his Phd project, "Aquatic ecosystem carbon cycling: From individual lakes to the landscape."; The goal of this study was to capture the spatial heterogeneity of within-lake processes in effort to make robust estimates of daily metabolism metrics such as gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R), and net ecosystem production (NEP). In pursuing this goal, multiple sondes were placed at different locations and depths within two stratified Northern Temperate Lakes, Sparkling Lake (n=35 sondes) and Peter Lake (n=27 sondes), located in the Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, respectively.Dissolved oxygen and temperature measurements were made every 10 minutes over a 10 day period for each lake in July and August of 2007. Dissolved oxygen measurements were corrected for drift. In addition, conductivity, temperature compensated specific conductivity, pH, and oxidation reduction potential were measured by a subset of sondes in each lake. Two data tables list the spatial information regarding sonde placement in each lake, and a single data table lists information about the sondes (manufacturer, model, serial number etc.). Documentation :Van de Bogert, M.C., 2011. Aquatic ecosystem carbon cycling: From individual lakes to the landscape. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. The University of Wisconsin - Madison, United States -- Wisconsin, p. 156. Also see Van de Bogert, M.C., Bade, D.L., Carpenter, S.R., Cole, J.J., Pace, M.L., Hanson, P.C., Langman, O.C., 2012. Spatial heterogeneity strongly affects estimates of ecosystem metabolism in two north temperate lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 57, 1689-1700.
Core Areas
Dataset ID
285
Date Range
-
Metadata Provider
Methods
Data were collected from two lakes, Sparkling Lake (46.008, -89.701) and Peter Lake (46.253, -89.504), both located in the northern highlands Lake District of Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan over a 10 day period on each lake in July and August of 2007. Refer to Van de Bogert et al. 2011 for limnological characteristics of the study lakes.Measurements of dissolved oxygen and temperature were made every 10 minutes using multiple sondes dispersed horizontally throughout the mixed-layer in the two lakes (n=35 sondes for Sparkling Lake and n=27 sondes for Peter Lake). Dissolved oxygen measurements were corrected for drift.Conductivity, temperature compensated specific conductivity, pH, and oxidation reduction potential were also measured by a subset of sensors in each lake. Of the 35 sondes in Sparkling Lake, 31 were from YSI Incorporated: 15 of model 600XLM, 14 of model 6920, and 2 of model 6600). The remaining sondes placed in Sparkling Lake were 4 D-Opto sensors, Zebra-Tech, LTD. In Peter Lake, 14 YSI model 6920 and 13 YSI model 600XLM sondes were used.Sampling locations were stratified randomly so that a variety of water depths were represented, however, a higher density of sensors were placed in the littoral rather than pelagic zone. See Van de Bogert et al. 2012 for the thermal (stratification) profile of Sparkling Lake and Peter Lake during the period of observation, and for details on how locations were classified as littoral or pelagic. In Sparkling Lake, 11 sensors were placed within the shallowest zone, 12 in the off-shore littoral, and 6 in each of the remaining two zones, for a total of 23 littoral and 12 pelagic sensors. Similarly, 15 sensors were placed in the two littoral zones, and 12 sensors in the pelagic zone.Sensors were randomly assigned locations within each of the zones using rasterized bathymetric maps of the lakes and a random number generator in Matlab. Within each lake, one pelagic sensor was placed at the deep hole which is used for routine-long term sampling.Note that in Sparkling Lake this corresponds to the location of the long-term monitoring buoy. After locations were determined, sensors were randomly assigned to each location with the exception of the four D-Opto sensor is Sparkling Lake, which are a part of larger monitoring buoys used in the NTL-LTER program. One of these was located near the deep hole of the lake while the other three were assigned to random locations along the north shore, south shore and pelagic regions of the lake. Documentation: Van de Bogert, M.C., Bade, D.L., Carpenter, S.R., Cole, J.J., Pace, M.L., Hanson, P.C., Langman, O.C., 2012. Spatial heterogeneity strongly affects estimates of ecosystem metabolism in two north temperate lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 57, 1689-1700.
Version Number
17

North Temperate Lakes LTER: High Frequency Water Temperature Data - Trout Lake Buoy2 - ADCP 2005 - 2006

Abstract
This instrumented buoy on Trout Lake is equipped with a thermistor chain that measures water temperature from depths placed every 0.5-1m from the surface through 13m. The Trout Lake buoy is also equipped with meteorological sensors that provide fundamental information on lake thermal structure and weather conditions. An acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) is associated with this buoy. Data are usually collected every 10 minutes with occasional periods of 2 minute data for short periods to answer specific questions. After correcting for flux to or from the atmosphere and vertical mixing within the water column, high frequency measurements of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen can be used to estimate gross primary productivity, respiration, and net ecosystem productivity, the basic components of whole lake metabolism. Sampling Frequency: varies for instantaneous sample. averaged to hourly and daily values from one minute samples Number of sites: 1
Core Areas
Dataset ID
121
Date Range
-
Maintenance
completed
Metadata Provider
Methods
see abstract for methods description
Short Name
TR2BUOY2
Version Number
22
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