Two worlds of fish recruitment: lakes and oceans. Early Life History Series Publ.
Lakes and oceans have many similarities for the ecology of larval and adult fishes, but they differ in at least one important respect. Lakes have characteristics of islands, poorly connected with one another and subject to locally extreme environmental conditions. These circumstances inhibit immigration of fishes and increase their chances of extinction. Adjacent ocean patches in contrast, are broadly connected and environmentally similar, conducive to immigration but not to extinction. At similar spatial scales, then, recruitment of species and year classes may be influenced principally by extinction processes in lakes and by colonization processes in oceans.
American Fisheries Society Symposium