Production and carbon allocation patterns of pine forests
In spite of their ecological and economic importance, few complete biomass accumulation and production budgets exist for pine forests. With few exceptions, foliage biomass, the ratio of foliage:total aboveground biomass and aboveground net primary production (ANPP) all decline in older pine forests. Climate strongly influences biomass allocation and net primary production of pine forests. For example, average foliage production decreases by 70\% from tropical to boreal pine forests while ANPP decreases by 80\%. Total root net primary production is positively correlated to mean annual temperature. Nutrient availability also strongly influences biomass allocation and production; both comparative and experimental studies show that foliage production and the ratio of new:total foliage biomass are greater for fertile than nutrient-poor pine forests and that the relative allocation of biomass belowground is greater for nutrient-poor than fertile forests. Many of the factors that influence biomass accumulation, allocation and net primary production of pine forests exert a similar control on other conifer forests.