An annual fossil record of production, planktivory, and piscivory during whole-lake manipulations
Annual and subannual paleolimnological records of pigments and zooplankton were used to analyze three whole-lake manipulations. The relative abundance of cladoceran remains in recent seasonal laminae was significantly correlated with the relative abundance of species in the plankton (r2=0.59,P\textless0.001). Comparison of food-web structure after piscivore introduction showed that there are multiple outcomes of predation and that final food-web structure depended on the strength of interaction between piscivorous and planktivorous fish. Intense predation on cyprinids (Phoxinus eos, P. neogaeus, Umbra limi) by largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) allowed large herbivores (Daphnia pulex) and invertebrate predators (Chaoborus punctipennis) to dominate. Analysis of fossil invertebrate morphology suggested that small grazers (Bosmina longirostris, Diaphanosoma birgei) were eliminated by invertebrate predators. Under moderate predation by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), cyprinids remained, only intermediate-size herbivores (D. rosea) increased in abundance, andBosmina persisted. In contrast to food-web manipulations, increased algal abundance resulting from watershed disturbance (road construction) did not alter the species composition or size-structure of fossil Cladocera.