NTL Lakes

map of northern lakesImage Map

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The focus is on a suite of lakes linked through a common groundwater and surface flow system as well as common climatic, edaphic, and biogeographic systems facilitating landscape as well as long-term ecological research. The suite includes oligotrophic, dystrophic, and mesotrophic lakes and a gradient in the portion that precipitation, groundwater, and surface water contribute to the input of their hydrologic budgets. The seven northern lakes, located in north central Wisconsin, were chosen to represent marked differences in size, morphometry and habitat diversity, in thermal and chlimatic features, in species richness and assemblies, and in biological productivity. These lakes are located within the Northern Highland-American Legion State Forest, Vilas County.

map of southern lakesImage Map

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In 1994 four primary study lakes in southern Wisconsin were added. These four eutrophic lakes were chosen in a 2x2 design of urban vs. agricultural setting and headwater vs. lower in the landscape.


Trout Lake Region Lake Characteristics

 
Characteristic Crystal Bog (27-2) Trout Bog (12-15) Crystal Lake Big Muskellunge Lake Sparkling Lake Allequash Lake Trout Lake
Latitude 46.008 46.041 46.003 46.021 46.008 46.038 46.029
Longitude -89.606 -89.686 -89.612 -89.612 -89.701 -89.621 -89.665
Area (ha) 0.6 1.0 37.5 363.4 63.7 164.2 1565.1
Mean Depth (m) 1.7 5.6 10.4 7.5 10.9 2.9 14.6
Maximum Depth (m) 2.5 7.9 20.4 21.3 20 8 35.7
Lake Benchmark (m)              
Shoreline Length (km)
0.285
0.369
2.3 16.1 4.3 9.5 25.9
Landscape Position High high high intermediate intermediate low low
Development on shoreline low low low (campground) moderate moderate low moderate
Duration of ice cover (days) 152 154 138 141 136 147 135
Water Temperature    (°C) 19.9 17.9 21.0 21.2 21.1 21.6 20.1
pH 5.2 4.8 6.1 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.6
ANC (µeq/L) 14 11 23 390 631 831 846
Conductivity (µS/cm) 11 23 13 50 86 92 96
Total P (µg/l) 18.2 46.6 8.3 17.5 15.0 29.3 13.5
Total N (µg/l) 722 961 210 441 371 379 247
SiO2 (µg/l) 834 1927 48 309 7217 13853 9529
Secchi Depth (m) 1.5 1.1 7.5 6.6 6.2 3.2 4.7
Chlorophyll (µg/l) 9.9 16.2 1.8 2.9 2.2 7.8 3.1
Number of fish species 1 3 24 34 30 36 42


Madison Lakes Region Lake Characteristics

 
Characteristic Fish Lake Lake Mendota Lake Wingra Lake Monona
Latitude 43.287 43.099 43.053 43.063
Longitude -89.652 -89.405 -89.425 -89.361
Area (ha) 80.4 3961.2 136.2 1359.8
Mean Depth (m) 6.6 12.8 2.7 8.2
Maximum Depth (m) 18.9 25.3 6.7 22.5
Shoreline Length (km) 4.3 33.8 5.9 20.9
Landscape position high low high low
Development on shoreline high high high high
Duration of ice cover (days)
 
119 120 107
Water Temperature (°C) 23.9 22.4 23.9 23.3
pH 8.1 8.4 8.5 8.5
ANC (µeq/L) 2921 3665 3745 3547
Conductivity (µS/cm) 280 412 500 434
Total P (µg/l) 22.4 109.5 40.3 73.5
Total N (µg/l) 835 860 933 845
SiO2 (µg/l) 367 711 5551 454
Secchi Depth (m) 2.4 3.0 0.7 2.4
Chlorophyll (µg/l) 5.1 4.8 10.5 8.1
Number of fish species 26 43 29 41

Note:
water temperature (0 - 2m) and secchi from June 1 - August 31
pH, ANC and conductivity from the average of spring and fall mixis sampling
total P, total N and SiO2 from spring mixis sampling
chlorophyll (surface) from open water season